Saturday, January 11, 2020

The city of ember

The city of ember Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts claimed over 23,000 lives in 1989 and 57,000 additional cases were diagnosed. The majority of individuals who fall prey to this type of cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. What is the risk you might ask. The fact that the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx or larynx. increases dramatically in people who are heavy users of alcohol and tobacco is substantiated by 30 years of collective research.Studies demonstrate that the risk to individuals dually addicted far utweighs the risk to Individuals who abuse only one substance. This confirmed link between alcohol and tobacco abuse and an increased risk in upper alimentary and respiratory tract cancer makes this type ot disease among the most preventable. The Correlation Between Smoking and Drinking . 1t has been observed that Individuals who drink alcohol have d greater tendency to smoke than non-drinkers. One of the first studies to establish and quantify the degree of association between drlnklng and smoking was reported In 1972.The Investigation compared 130 alcoholic men hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal to 100 non-alcoholic psychiatric utpatients, Ninety-four percent of the alcoholic men smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day, as compared to only 46 percent of the non-alcohollcs, who smoked one or more packs per day. Another study. which compared male and female alcoholics enrolled In an army drug and alcohol rehabllltatlon program to non- alcoholic army personnel and their relatives, affirmed the smoking-drinking association.The report found that individuals who were alcoholics smoked an average of 49 cigarettes per day, but that the non-alcoholic subjects smoked only 13 cigarettes per day. In addition, the study established a high correlation between the umber of cigarettes smoked and the grams of alcohol consumed by alcoholics, as opposed to a very weak association for the non-alcoholic control group. similar report, 58 percent ot the non-drinkers were non-smokers, but the individuals who were alcoholics did not abstain from smoking.The finding that smokers who did not drink smoked significantly less than smokers who did drink was further substantiated In additional studies. Why Do Many Drinkers Smoke More? Studies released in the late 1950s, correlating heavy coffee consumption with smoking and drinking, suggested that a strong oral drive caused drinkers to smoke ore frequently. However, new evidence suggests that a strong oral drive is not the culprit. In one study, alcoholics who had successfully stopped drinking demonstrated no appreciable Increase In smoking.In tact, some even smoked less with alcohol abstinence. If a strong oral drive was responsible for the drinking-smoking association, one would expect an increase in smoking during periods of alcohol abstinence. An alternative theory claimed that drinkers smo ked more due to just as much as alcoholics who drink in the company of other people dispelled this theory. The most plausible explanation is that drinkers smoke more than non- rinkers due to a greater physiological need for nicotine. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, is a potent chemical.It has a stimulating effect on the nervous system, causing, among other things, increased heart rate and mental stimulation. Once addicted to nicotine, a person may experience tremors of shakiness as blood levels of nicotine decrease to critically low levels. The smoker will crave another cigarette as blood levels reach this threshold to avoid these uncomfortable symptoms. Alcohol apparently causes blood levels of nicotine to fall more rapidly in smokers by activating enzymes in tissues which metabolize drugs. For example, rats pretreated with ethanol cleared nicotine from their blood more rapidly than rats not receiving ethanol.This research, coupled with numerous independent ob servations, strongly suggests that drinkers must smoke more in order to maintain the blood nicotine levels upon which they have become dependent. Why Is There More Cancer Among Alcohol and Tobacco Users? Investigations are under way to find an answer to this question. Laboratory studies have shown that alcohol enhances the metabolism of several tobacco associated carcinogens, including nitrosamines. It is known that tobacco and its smoke contain many classes f chemical carcinogens which must be activated to react with DNA and initiate steps towards carcinogenesis.Important in this activation process are cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which are induced by alcohol in heavy drinkers. Thus, alcohol and smoking are synergistic in increasing cancer risk. Since alcohol increases the metabolism and hence the need for nicotine, it follows that the success of smoking cessation programs will be improved if drinking habits of patients are controlled. Treatment of incipient alcoholism thus becomes a prerequisite for the ultimate success of behavior modification aimed at the elimination of smoking. The City of Ember The City of Ember is a post apocalyptic fantasy about Ember. I was written by Jeanne DuPrau and published in 2003. Ember is a city which was built by people, in the book know as â€Å"The Builders†, they built this city underground to house its citizens for 200 years. They say that the earth is uninhabitable for those years but never specify why. During these years a box with instructions is passed from mayor to mayor but a plague is spreading and the seventh mayor thinks the box may contain a cure so he tries opening it but dies before it is opened. The box was never returned and it is currently missing. It is now year 241 and the towns recourses are dwindling down. The power source is also not doing well because of the generators age it is not producing enough power. Lina and Doon are two graduates of their school and are both assigned jobs they don't like so they decide to switch. When She finds the box and it has the letter in which the escape route is stated. She does not know and before she can find out her sister chews it until their are hole in it. Lina and Doon eventually make a run for it after unraveling the letters meaning. They are amazed to find a whole new world outside of the small world they lived in. When they eventually reach safety in their newly discovered world they throw the directions down to the city they lived in. The book leaves off with Mrs. Murdo, Lina's guardian finding it and it is a mystery from then on. Overall I enjoyed the book because it was suspense filled and all the action that went on made it fun to read. The ending even had suspense and i would definitely recommend this book to others as a fun read but I stress it is not a challenging one. The city of ember The city of ember Tobacco Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Cancer of the upper respiratory and alimentary tracts claimed over 23,000 lives in 1989 and 57,000 additional cases were diagnosed. The majority of individuals who fall prey to this type of cancer are males who abuse both alcohol and tobacco. What is the risk you might ask. The fact that the risk of developing cancer of the esophagus, lip, tongue, mouth, pharynx or larynx. increases dramatically in people who are heavy users of alcohol and tobacco is substantiated by 30 years of collective research.Studies demonstrate that the risk to individuals dually addicted far utweighs the risk to Individuals who abuse only one substance. This confirmed link between alcohol and tobacco abuse and an increased risk in upper alimentary and respiratory tract cancer makes this type ot disease among the most preventable. The Correlation Between Smoking and Drinking . 1t has been observed that Individuals who drink alcohol have d greater tendency to smoke than non-drinkers. One of the first studies to establish and quantify the degree of association between drlnklng and smoking was reported In 1972.The Investigation compared 130 alcoholic men hospitalized for alcohol withdrawal to 100 non-alcoholic psychiatric utpatients, Ninety-four percent of the alcoholic men smoked one or more packs of cigarettes per day, as compared to only 46 percent of the non-alcohollcs, who smoked one or more packs per day. Another study. which compared male and female alcoholics enrolled In an army drug and alcohol rehabllltatlon program to non- alcoholic army personnel and their relatives, affirmed the smoking-drinking association.The report found that individuals who were alcoholics smoked an average of 49 cigarettes per day, but that the non-alcoholic subjects smoked only 13 cigarettes per day. In addition, the study established a high correlation between the umber of cigarettes smoked and the grams of alcohol consumed by alcoholics, as opposed to a very weak association for the non-alcoholic control group. similar report, 58 percent ot the non-drinkers were non-smokers, but the individuals who were alcoholics did not abstain from smoking.The finding that smokers who did not drink smoked significantly less than smokers who did drink was further substantiated In additional studies. Why Do Many Drinkers Smoke More? Studies released in the late 1950s, correlating heavy coffee consumption with smoking and drinking, suggested that a strong oral drive caused drinkers to smoke ore frequently. However, new evidence suggests that a strong oral drive is not the culprit. In one study, alcoholics who had successfully stopped drinking demonstrated no appreciable Increase In smoking.In tact, some even smoked less with alcohol abstinence. If a strong oral drive was responsible for the drinking-smoking association, one would expect an increase in smoking during periods of alcohol abstinence. An alternative theory claimed that drinkers smo ked more due to just as much as alcoholics who drink in the company of other people dispelled this theory. The most plausible explanation is that drinkers smoke more than non- rinkers due to a greater physiological need for nicotine. Nicotine, the main psychoactive component of tobacco, is a potent chemical.It has a stimulating effect on the nervous system, causing, among other things, increased heart rate and mental stimulation. Once addicted to nicotine, a person may experience tremors of shakiness as blood levels of nicotine decrease to critically low levels. The smoker will crave another cigarette as blood levels reach this threshold to avoid these uncomfortable symptoms. Alcohol apparently causes blood levels of nicotine to fall more rapidly in smokers by activating enzymes in tissues which metabolize drugs. For example, rats pretreated with ethanol cleared nicotine from their blood more rapidly than rats not receiving ethanol.This research, coupled with numerous independent ob servations, strongly suggests that drinkers must smoke more in order to maintain the blood nicotine levels upon which they have become dependent. Why Is There More Cancer Among Alcohol and Tobacco Users? Investigations are under way to find an answer to this question. Laboratory studies have shown that alcohol enhances the metabolism of several tobacco associated carcinogens, including nitrosamines. It is known that tobacco and its smoke contain many classes f chemical carcinogens which must be activated to react with DNA and initiate steps towards carcinogenesis.Important in this activation process are cytochrome P-450 enzymes, which are induced by alcohol in heavy drinkers. Thus, alcohol and smoking are synergistic in increasing cancer risk. Since alcohol increases the metabolism and hence the need for nicotine, it follows that the success of smoking cessation programs will be improved if drinking habits of patients are controlled. Treatment of incipient alcoholism thus becomes a prerequisite for the ultimate success of behavior modification aimed at the elimination of smoking.

Friday, January 3, 2020

Irish Mythology History and Legacy

Irish mythology is a collection of pre-Christian beliefs detailing the histories and legends of ancient Ireland. These beliefs include descriptions and stories of deities, heroes, and kings measured in four distinct, chronological cycles.   Key Takeaways Irish mythology is a branch of Celtic mythology detailing the legends and histories of ancient Ireland.  It includes four distinct chronological cycles: Mythological, Ulster, Fenian, and Historical.  Ã‚  The oldest of these, the Mythological Cycle, details the supernatural first inhabitants of Ireland, known as the Tuatha Dà © Dannan.  These myths and legends were recorded by Christian monks in the 11th century, and many ancient Irish deities influenced the later canonization of Catholic saints, including St. Patrick and St. Brigid. Irish tales were recorded by 11th-century Christian monks, which helped make Irish mythology the most well-preserved branch of Celtic mythology. In some parts of Ireland, there is still a belief in the Creideamh Sà ­, or fairy faith, that coexists with Catholicism. What Is Irish Mythology? Irish mythology is a branch of Celtic mythology which details the origin stories and deities, kings, and heroes of ancient Ireland. Celtic mythology encompasses the collections of Brittonic, Scottish, and Irish ancient beliefs and practices passed down by oral tradition. Among these, Irish mythology is the best preserved, owing to the Christian monks that entered the tales into the written historical record during the Middle Ages. Ancient Irish myths are measured into four cycles. Each cycle details a group of pre-Christian deities, legendary heroes, or ancient kings, and the four cycles together chronologize the fabled settlement of the Emerald Isle. Mythological Cycle: The first Irish mythological cycle details the arrival and disappearance of the first inhabitants of Ireland, a group of godlike or supernatural people called Tuatha Dà © Dannan. The disappearance of these people gave rise to the Aos Sà ­, more contemporary mythical Irish creatures including leprechauns, changelings, and the Banshee.  Ulster Cycle: The second cycle is thought to have taken place in the 1st century, around the time of the birth of Jesus Christ. It details quests and feats of ancient heroes, specifically in the areas of Ulster, in the north, and Leinster, in the east.  Fenian Cycle: The third cycle recounts the journey of the hero Fionn mac Cumhaill and his mighty warriors, known as the Fianna.  Historical Cycle: The final Irish mythological cycle, known as the Cycle of the Kings, is the history and genealogy of ancient Irish royals as told by court poets. For centuries, Irish folklore passed through generations by oral tradition, though by the 11th century, they had been written down by monks. As a result, threads of Christianity are present in stories that would have had no notion of Christian faith. For example, the Mythological Cycle refers to the first settlers of Ireland as supernatural, godlike, or skilled in magic but never as gods, deities, or holy entities, though they would have been sacred to ancient people. Irish Mythical Deities   Ancient Irish mythological characters include venerated kings, heroes, and gods. The first cycle of Irish mythology, aptly known as the Mythological Cycle, is comprised of stories outlining the fabled founding of Ireland by the Tuatha Dà © Dannan and, later, the Aos Sà ­. The Tuatha Dà © Dannan disappeared, giving rise to the Aos Sà ­, who existed in a parallel universe alongside venerated ancestors, ancient kings, and legendary heroes. This universe, called the Tir na nOg or the Otherworld, can be accessed on certain occasions at sacred places, including burial mounds, fairy hills, stone circles, and cairns.   Tuatha Dà © Dannan According to legend, the Tuatha Dà © Dannan, or â€Å"People of the goddess Danu,† were supernatural creatures with human forms that were skilled in magical arts. Their story is recorded in the Book of Invasions, one of the texts written by the 11th-century monks. The Book of Invasions detailed how the godlike people descended into Ireland with a thick fog that encompassed the land, and when the fog lifted, the Tuatha Dà © Dannan remained. When the Milesians, the ancient ancestors of the Irish people, arrived in Ireland, they conquered the land, and the Tuatha Dà © Dannan disappeared. Some legends say they left Ireland completely and permanently, retreating to the Otherworld, while others say they blended together with the Milesians, passing some of the magic of the mythical deities into lives of the modern Irish people. Some of the most venerated figures of the Tuatha Dà © Dannan include: Dagda: God of life and death, patriarchLir: God of the sea  Ogma: God of learning, creator of Ogham scriptLugh: God of sun and light  Brighid: goddess of health and fertility  Tree de Dana: Gods of crafts; Goibniu, the blacksmith, Credne, the goldsmith, and Luchtaine, the carpenter Aos Sà ­ The Aos Sà ­, also known as the Sidhe (pronounced sith), are the â€Å"People of the Mounds† or the â€Å"Otherworldly Folk,† the contemporary depictions of the fairy folk. They are widely considered to be the descendants or manifestations of the Tuatha Dà © Dannan who retreated the Otherworld, where they walk amongst human beings but generally tend to live separately from them. The common and contemporary Irish characterizations are rooted in the Aos Sà ­. Some of the most recognizable fairies are:   Leprechaun: A solitary shoemaker known for causing mischief and keeping pots of gold.The Banshee: Similar to the Latin American myth of La Llorona, the Banshee is a woman whose wailing signifies death.  Changelings: A fairy child left in the place of a human child. Sick or disabled babies and children were often thought to be changelings, leading to devastating consequences until as recently as 1895, when Bridget Cleary was killed by her husband, who believed her to be a changeling. The Aos Sà ­ are known to inhabit places from which the Otherworld is accessible, including fairy hills, fairy rings, and notable geographical features like lakes, rivers, hills, and mountains. The Aos Sà ­ are fiercely protective of their spaces, and they are known to seek vengeance on those who enter, intentionally or not. Though the Aos Sà ­ are mythical creatures, there is a strong sense of the Creideamh Sà ­, or Fairy Faith, cultivated by some Irish people. The purpose of Creideamh Sà ­, which coexists with Catholicism, is not necessarily worship, but rather the fostering of good relations. Followers of the Fairy Faith are conscious of sacred spaces, careful not to enter them or build over them.   Christian Influence on Irish Mythology The Christian monks and scholars who recorded ancient Irish myths did so with the bias of faith. As a result, Christian development and ancient mythology significantly influenced each other. For example, Ireland’s two patron saints, St. Patrick and St. Brigid, are rooted in ancient Irish mythology. St. Patrick The most glaring amalgamation of religious practices can be found in the annual celebration of St. Patrick’s Day, a holiday with Catholic roots that almost always features leprechauns in some capacity. Contemporary holidays aside, early Christians in Ireland revered  St. Patrick as a symbol of the triumph of Christianity over paganism. However, particularly in the same medieval texts that outline ancient Irish history,  St. Patrick is not documented as a warrior, but rather as a mediator between Christian and Pagan cultures.   St. Brigid Most people who are familiar with Ireland recognize St. Brigid of Kildare as the second patron saint of the Emerald Isle, as well as the saint of a handful of other stations and vocations, including babies, midwives, Irish nuns, dairymaids. It is less commonly known that the story of St. Brigid is rooted in the legend of Brighid, one of the deities of the ancient Tuatha Dà © Dannan. Brigid was the daughter of Dagda and the goddess of fertility and health, much like St. Brigid. Sources   Bartlett, Thomas. Ireland: a History. Cambridge University Press, 2011.Bradley, Ian C. Celtic Christianity: Making Myths and Chasing Dreams. Edinburgh U.P, 2003.Croker, Thomas Crofton. Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland. Murray (U. A.), 1825.Evans-Wentz, W. Y. The Fairy-Faith in Celtic Countries. Pantianos Classics, 2018.Gantz, Jeffrey. Early Irish Myths and Sagas. Penguin Books, 1988.Joyce, P. W. A Social History of Ancient Ireland. Longmans, 1920.Koch, John Thomas. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO, 2006.MacKillop, James. Myths and Legends of the Celts. Penguin, 2006.Wilde, Lady Francesca Speranza. Ancient Legends, Mystic Charms, and Superstitions of Ireland: with Sketches of the Irish Past. Ticknor and Co., 1887.

Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Definition of Ethnicity in Sociology

In sociology, ethnicity is a concept referring to a shared culture and a way of life. This can be reflected in language, religion, material culture such as clothing and cuisine, and cultural products such as music and art. Ethnicity is often a major source of social cohesion as well as social conflict. The world is home to thousands of ethnic groups, from the Han Chinese—the largest ethnic group in the world—to the smallest indigenous groups, some of which include only a few dozen people. Almost all of these groups possess a shared history, language, religion, and culture, which provide group members with a common identity. Learned Behavior Ethnicity, unlike race, is not based on biological traits, except in the case of ethnic groups that recognize certain traits as requirements for membership. In other words, the cultural elements that define a particular ethnic group are taught, not inherited. This means that the boundaries between ethnic groups are, to some degree, fluid, allowing for individuals to move between groups. This can happen, for example, when a child from one ethnic group is adopted into another, or when an individual undergoes a religious conversion. It can also happen through the process of acculturation, whereby members of a native group are forced to adopt the culture and manners of a dominating host group. Ethnicity should not be confused with nationality, which refers to citizenship. While some countries are largely composed of a single ethnic group (Egypt, Finland, Germany, China), others are composed of many different groups (United States, Australia, Philippines, Panama). The rise of nation-states in Europe in the 1600s led to the creation of many countries that are still ethnically homogenous today. The population of Germany, for example, is 91.5 percent German. Countries that were founded as colonies, on the other hand, are more likely to be home to multiple ethnicities. Examples Different ethnic groups do not use the same criteria to define group membership. While one group may emphasize the importance of a shared language, another may emphasize the importance of a shared religious identity. French Canadians are an ethnic group for whom language is paramount. It is what connects them to the French colonists who first settled Canada in the 1600s and what distinguishes them from English Canadians, Scottish Canadians, and Irish Canadians. Other aspects of culture, such as religion, are less significant when it comes to defining who is and is not French Canadian. Most French Canadians are Christians, but some are Catholic and others are Protestant. In contrast, religion is an essential part of ethnic identity for groups such as the Jews. Unlike French Canadians, Jews do not define themselves based on a single shared language. In fact, Jewish communities throughout the world have developed a variety of different languages, including Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino (Judeo-Spanish), Judeo-Arabic, and Judeo-Aramaic (not to mention the many Jews who speak English, French, German, or any other of the worlds many languages). Because ethnic groups are self-defined, it is important to remember that no single aspect of group identity (language, religion, etc.) can be used to sort people into one group or another. Flashpop / Getty Images Race vs. Ethnicity Unlike ethnicity, race is based on physical traits that are inherited, such as skin color and facial features. Racial categories are broader than ethnic categories. Today, for example, the U.S. Census divides people into five racial categories: white, black or African American, American Indian or Alaska Native,  Asian, and  Native Hawaiian  or Other Pacific Islander. Modern scientists regard race as a social construct, and racial categories, like ethnic categories, have changed over time. What Is My Ethnicity? Because ethnicity is more of a cultural practice than a science, you probably grew up understanding your own ethnicity in a way that tests will never be able to measure. The food you ate, the traditions you practiced, and the language(s) you spoke are all essential aspects of your ethnic identity. If you are interested in learning more about your exact ancestry, you can do so using a variety of DNA testing services. DNA Testing for Ethnicity DNA testing—available through services such as 23andMe, MyHeritage, and LivingDNA—allows people to explore their genealogy using their genetic information. Examining DNA can reveal information about a persons ancestry and ethnic background. While the principles of DNA testing are sound, the private companies that offer this service through home-testing kits have been criticized for their methodologies. Sheldon Krimsky, a scientist at Tufts University, says that these companies don’t share their data, and their methods are not validated by an independent group of scientists. Since each company uses a different database of genetic information, Krimsky says the tests can only give an indication of probabilities: The results are in no way definitive; instead each company uses common genetic variations as the basis for saying the  probability  is that 50 percent of your DNA is, for example, from North Europe and 30 percent is from Asia, based on how it compares to the information in its database. However, if you send DNA to a second company, you might get different results, because it has a different database. The popularity of DNA testing for ancestry has also generated concerns about data privacy.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Teaching English Vocabulary Using Games - 4620 Words

|Vol 36 No 1, January - March 1998 Page 20|PREVIOUS ... CONTENTS ... SEARCH ... NEXT | | |The Use of Games | | | |For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision | | | |by Agnieszka Uberman | | | | |Vocabulary acquisition is increasingly viewed as crucial to language acquisition. | | | | | |However, there is much disagreement as to the effectiveness of different approaches for | | | | | |presenting vocabulary items. Moreover, learning vocabulary†¦show more content†¦As French Allen perceives them, dictionaries are passports to independence, and using them is| | | |one of the student-centered learning activities (1983:83). | | | | | | | | | | | |Using games | | | |The advantages of using games. Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that | | | |games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most | | | |language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2). | | | |He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching | | | |programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against | | | |overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of | | | |using games. Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely (Richard-Amato | | | |1988:147). They are highly motivating andShow MoreRelatedReview Of Related Literature On English Students1363 Words   |  6 PagesII. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A.Vocabulary As in the know vocabulary is a collection of words which is one important part in learning English which is the second language of the mother tongue. According to Folse (2008), learning english should gain an understanding of vocabulary mastery, it can help the students to improve their vocabulary. Vocabulary is a list of the usual set of words arranged in sequential alphabetical order dictioned or dictioned by a dictionary or glossary. All wordsRead MoreDungeon And Dragons, Rock N Roll, And Video Games919 Words   |  4 PagesDungeon and Dragons, Rock N’ Roll, and video games, these are three separate activities that when looked at from afar do not seem to have anything to do with each other. However, they in fact do have something fairly big in common. They each have been blamed with being either bad for you or a negative influence. Whether it be Dungeon and Dragons being satanic and making people lose touch with reality, Rock N’ Roll’s cause of juvenile delinquency, or video games leading to violent and antisocial behaviorRead MoreThe Problem With English Language Learners801 Words   |  4 Pagesstudying and learning in core areas is lack of content-related vocabulary. We acknowledge that the most challenging situation is with English language l earners (ELLs). This is the reason Texas has adopted the English Language Proficiency Standards (ELPS) to be able to support the ELLs as they learn the required Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS). However, on a large scale, we observe that even some of our students who are native English speakers also sometimes struggle academically. This is becauseRead MoreUsing Crossword to Teach Vocabulary1576 Words   |  7 PagesTEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO ELEMENTARY SCHOOL STUDENTS BY USING CROSSWORD PUZZLE RAHAJENG Abstract Teaching vocabulary is something challenging, especially if it is done to elementary school students. It is chalenging because elementary school students usually do not like to learn something in a serious way. They are still children that like to play. A serious way in teaching will just make them bored. It is why teaching vocabulary to elementary school students requires creativity of theRead MoreTeaching / Learning Strategies For Learning1621 Words   |  7 Pagesand engagement increased. Lessons and activities that enhance and support learning are teaching /learning strategies that when cooperatively done contributes to a lifelong learning/knowledge. Students skills activities allow me to provide feedback that can be shared and/or discussed by the whole class increasing learning. Opportunities lead to sharing that leads to learning. By literally teaching the vocabulary/material learned in the classroom I increased my ELLs understanding on the subject beingRead MorePlay Is Our B rain s Favorite Way Of Learning1252 Words   |  6 Pagesis gaming. As a result, games have become negatively viewed by parents and teachers alike. One study shows that a child with access to video games â€Å"spent less time engaged in educational activities after school and showed less advancement in their reading and writing skills over time† (Rettner). Parents and teachers alike want children to acquire an adequate education. Since games seem to be hindering education, it is understandable that they would advocate for video games to be restricted. But, someRead MoreJumbled-Letter Game for Vocabulary Teaching3358 Words   |  14 PagesIMPROVING STUDENT’S VOCABULARY BY USING JUMBLED-LETTER GAME IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING CONTEXTS By: Nora Fudhla A. Background For some language teachers, teaching vocabulary is challenging, especially in English Language Teaching classroom. Nowadays, the teacher should provide a vocabulary teaching which avoiding vocabulary list memorization or vocabulary translation. Besides, the teacher also should consider about the students’ different ability to master vocabulary. Some language studentsRead MoreVideo Game Effects On Childrens Development930 Words   |  4 PagesVIDEO GAME EFFECTS ON CHILDRENS DEVELOPMENT It is believed the average gamer usually ages 13 and up spends up to 6.3 hours a day playing video games. That is an alarming rate, which concerns both the public and scientist. Through out this paper three different articles will be analyzed and their view on the impact of video games on children’s and adolescents. The first article to be discussed is â€Å"Prospective Investigation of Video Game Use in Children and Subsequent Conduct Disorder and DepressionRead MoreEnglish Classroom Observation Report1549 Words   |  7 Pagesempirical data from the observations carried out in a Kindergarten I have been observing since March. Regarding the English teacher, she has utter freedom in what and how to teach. Nevertheless, she tries to plan the lessons with the main teacher to try to present the learners similar vocabulary in Spanish and in English. The aim of the institution is that students can approach to English in a friendly and positive atmosphere. Read MoreScholarly Articles On Teaching And Learning1305 Words   |  6 Pagesarticles about teaching and learning in the English discipline. This review of literature seeks to explore factors that can cause poor reading comprehension among students and provide strategies as to how these students’ comprehension and vocabulary skills can be improved therefore, enhancing their academic performance. In addition, this paper will outline an explanation of how the strategies address the needs of diverse students in the English discipline. Issues within the English Discipline The

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Resolution Regimes for Financial Institution †MyAssignmenthelp.com

Question: Discuss about the Resolution Regimes for Financial Institution. Answer: Introduction: There are several controversies surrounding the roles played by the Fair value Measurement in the Global Financial Crisis (GFC). There those who think that Fair Value has been used as a scapegoat to avoid the real cause of GFC while others strongly believe that fair value played a major role in the crisis. This evaluates the application of fair value in accounting and financial reporting by both the international and Australian accounting agencies (Benston, 2008). The paper is divided into three parts. The first part discusses my view on the role of accounting standards (fair value) on GFC and the remedies taken by International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The second part address the problems related to the prior accounting standards and why the IASBs took actions to improve fair value accounting. Last, part three discusses the influence of IASB on the Australian Accounting Standards. In the first part, the essay critically addresses the role of accounting standards on GFC. Just like other accounting analysts, I believe that fair value accounting has been used as a scapegoat. There are several factors that contributed to the financial crisis. At the top of the list are regulatory and political factors which are beyond the fair value accounting. Fair value accounting is just like a messenger who cannot be castigated based on the message content. Financial illiteracy was at the heart of GFC (Arya Reinstein, 2010). Lack of knowledge on the application of the accounting standard played a major role in an economic downturn. It is the auditors, analysts and statement preparers who contributed to the financial crisis and not the fair value accounting standards. The fair value accounting was introduced in 2006, and only a handful financial analysts and accountants were fair with the standards prior to the 2008/9 financial crisis. Most of the personnel were familiar with the traditional accounting model while they were required to apply fair value accounting. If this personnel were familiar with the standards, the impact of the GFC would have been minimized (Sherry, 2009). Fair value accounting method is more relevant and transparent than the traditional accounting methods. Therefore, the problem should be blamed on lack of understanding and knowledge by the accountants, analysts, auditors, and management. They did not understand the effect recognition of unrealized gains and losses on the entity (Pozen, 2009). Likewise, the users could not properly evaluate the timing, amount and the uncertainties surrounding financial statements prepared using fair value accounting model. In response to the claims, the IASB took several initiatives. The board now work closes with accounting standards from different nations to set standards that are accepted globally. For example, the body has pushed for the global adoption of the IFRS and a method to promote global financial stability (Ratcliffe, 2007). For example, IASB has adopted standardized Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR), securitization model, and aligning the IFRS with the U.S Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Likewise, the accounting board has harmonized the treatment of consolidated data on credit risks and bilateral counterparty in the banking and financial sectors (Arya Reinstein, 2010). The second part is to address the problems related to the prior accounting standards and why the IASBs took actions to improve fair value accounting. The Accounting Standard IAS 39 addresses the recognition and measurement of financial instruments. However, following the GFC, there was a debate on how best to measure the fair value. The crisis led to the decrease of fair value of different financial instruments resulting from forced liquidation, distress sales and inactive markets (King, 2009). To resolve the problem, The IASB clarified on the implementation of the accounting standards with respect to the fair value accounting. IASB published guidelines on fair value measurement in the illiquid market management. The amendments allowed entities to reclassify given financial items. The reclassification allowed companies to value some items based on the historical cost rather than the fair value (Power, 2010). In analyzing what led to the amendment of the fair value accounting method, the measurement before GFC should be considered. IASB had IAS 32 and 39 accounting standards to address the treatment of financial instruments. IAS 32 addressed instrument disclosure and presentation while IAS 39 addressed instrument Recognition and Measurement. In 2005, the IASB introduced IFRS 7 stated that financial instruments, either they are measured at fair value or not, should be disclosure (King, 2009). Under the first category, the IAS was amended to grant companies with a choice of using fair value in measuring its financial instruments. Entities were supposed to value their assets and liabilities at the fair value at the issuance or acquisition period. The changes in the value of financial items had to be recognized in the income (FSB [Financial Stability Board], 2011). Category 2 addressed fair value through profit or loss. The clause stated that financial assets and liabilities held for trading purposes were to be measured at their fair value as well. Category 3 and 5 stated that loans, receivables, and fixed maturity debts had to be recorded using their historical cost after the deduction of subsequent depreciation, impairment, and amortization. Last (Aubin, 2010). Category 4 addressed available for sales. Financial assets and liabilities held for the purposes of sales should be recorded as the fair value and the realized changes to be recognized in the equity. The amended stated that such changes would only affect the income statement after the actual sale of the item (Benston, 2008). After the GFC, the IASB made three amendments. First, IAS 39 was amended to allow reclassification of certain financial items under given circumstances. Second, the requirements for disclosure of financial instruments was extended. And three, IASB published the guidance on the application of fair value in the illiquid markets. The amendment was meant to offer more transparency on the application of accounting standards in the global market. More specifically, the amendments were meant to reduce the differences between US GAAP and IFRS. Before the amendments, the European companies were disadvantaged when it came to their competitiveness in the global market (Ratcliffe, 2007). By amending IFRS 7, to include more disclosure of the reclassifications of financial instruments, IASB increased the transparency of financial reporting to the investors. For example, companies are under obligation to disclose a detailed analysis on the impact of the reclassification of items. Clear, the amendments offered mitigation to the problems associated with the fair value measurement prior and during the financial crisis management (Ratcliffe, 2007). Finally, part three discusses the influence of IASB on the Australian Accounting Standards. Following the Global Financial crisis, the Australian Accounting Standards Board (AASB) welcomed the move to amend its accounting standards in line with the IASB (LANDSMAN, 2007). According to the Press Release No.67 by Nick Sherry, the then Minister for Superannuation and Corporate Law, we welcome the decision by the AASB to amend the Accounting standards so as to remain consistent with the new accounting guidance by the IASB (Sherry, 2009). The board acknowledged that the GFC had raised concern on the classification particular financial instruments. The amendments were meant to reclassify stressed financial instruments to conform to the IASB and the US GAAP. The objective was to ensure that the AASB produced well-informed and consistent financial reports and statements which offer useful and accurate information to the financial analysts and stakeholders. Likewise, the amendments would enhance transparency, investors confidence and promote the entry of the Australian firms in the global markets (Ratcliffe, 2007). The amendments on the AASB were as a result of adopted changes by the IASB in 2008 which allowed companies to choose between reclarifying some financial instruments using either the fair value measurement or historical cost basis. The adoption of new changes and proposed amendments by the AASB was meant to offer a coordinated accounting approach to the global accounting standard boards with an objective of addressing the existing challenges on financial reporting (Barth Landsman, 2010). Generally, the amendments were meant to address the economic and financial crisis in the future. IASB had adopted an accounting approach similar to the US GAAP and US Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB). Therefore, the amendments ensured that the Australian companies could complete in their international counterparts (King, 2009). The AASB has played a critical role in the creation and global adoption of International Accounting Standards (IAS). With a close partnership with Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and New Zealand, Australia has contributed immensely to the development of the accounting standards. The AASB has its own representatives in the IASB who represents the views of the AASB as well as ensuring that the AASB accounting guidelines are aligned to those of IASB (FSB [Financial Stability Board], 2011). Clearly, AASB is well represented in the IASB and it has ensured that its accounting rules and principles are in line with those of IASB. Today the Australian companies can compete fairly in the global market thanks to the adoption of IASB (Arya Reinstein, 2010). In conclusion, the global financial crisis should not be blamed squarely on fair value measurement. There are several factors that contributed to the GFC. Financial illiteracy on the application of fair value method in one of them. Following the crisis, the IASB proposed new amendments to IAS 39 in an attempt to iron out the previous arising issues. Likewise, the AASB also adopted the IASB guidelines to ensure that the financial reporting by its entities show transparency, integrity and a true and fair value. Lastly, the IASB and the AASB are amended from time to time to be at Par with the accounting trends. References Arya, A., Reinstein, A. (2010). Recent Developments in Fair Value Accounting. The CPA Journal. Aubin, D. (2010). Mark-to-Market Plan Could be Modified: FASB Member. Reuters. Barth, M. E., Landsman, W. R. (2010). How did financial reporting contribute to the financial crisis? European Accounting Review, 19(3), 399-423. Benston, G. J. (2008). The shortcomings of fair-value accounting described in SFAS157. Journal of Accounting and Public Policy, 27(2), 101-114. FSB [Financial Stability Board]. (2011). Key Attributes of Effective Resolution Regimes for Financial Institutions. New York: FSB. King, A. M. (2009). Determining fair value . Strategic Finance , 90 (7): 27-32. LANDSMAN, W. (2007). Is fair value accounting information relevant and reliable? Evidence from capital market research. Accounting, 19-30. Power, M. (2010). Fair Value Accounting, Financial Economics, and the Transformation of Reliability. Accounting and Business Research, Vol. 40, No. 3. Pozen, R. C. (2009). Is It Fair to Blame Fair Value Accounting for the Financial Crisis? New York: Harvard Business Review. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2009/11/is-it-fair-to-blame-fair-value-accounting-for-the-financial-crisis Ratcliffe, T. A. (2007). The finer points of fair value. Journal of Accountancy , 204 (6): 58-61. Sherry, N. (2009, June 8). Australian Accounting Standards Amended in Global Action to Address Impact of Credit Crisis. Retrieved from Australian Government: The Treasury: https://ministers.treasury.gov.au/DisplayDocs.aspx?doc=pressreleases/2008/067.htmpageID=003min=njsYear=DocType=

Monday, December 2, 2019

Tribunals of Inquiry in Northern Ireland Essay Example For Students

Tribunals of Inquiry in Northern Ireland Essay Introduction Many countries have faced situations in which their citizens demand accountability for injustices or atrocities committed by their own domestic governments, which are in violation of their human rights. The manner in which varying nations have provided for and acknowledged these facts, on their various public platforms, have been both controversial and diverse. These problems tend not to fade into obscurity if left unaddressed. History has dictated that struggle for truth has been adopted by subsequent generations, who demand responsibility from their own government in power as, in many cases, the events will have occurred at the hands of a preceding government. We will write a custom essay on Tribunals of Inquiry in Northern Ireland specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The passing of time has illustrated that the quest for truth does not dissipate but can cause emotions to escalate and heighten the resolve of the aggrieved parties. Commentators suggest that establishing truth about the past is a precondition for preventing the recurrence of abuses in the future. This paper submits, in extension to this theory, that it is an essential ingredient in the desired passage towards restoration in public confidence and synonymous to the concept of justice in this modern legal world. The focus of this question is specifically the model of Tribunal of Inquiry which is governed by Section 1 of the Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Act 1921 , which is the legislation used to handle inquiries involving an official element, and truth commissions, the alternative model that has been internationally adopted, largely as a result of military agitation or liberation coups. This paper will also touch upon inquiries hosted in other countries. Public inquiries themselves are rare and, this paper suggests, much resisted events, indeed Northern Ireland has borne witness to just three such inquiries under the aforementioned Act. These were the Scarman Inquiry in 1969, followed by the Widgery Inquiry in 1972, , the unsatisfactory outcome of which gave rise to the Saville Inquiry in 1998. Countries such as South Africa, Sierra Leone and Argentina, among others, have had their human rights redress distinctively characterized by the construction of truth commissions . Whether this type mechanism would be more conducive to the pursuit of truth, in matters of vast public concern within the context of Northern Ireland, is a matter for this paper to explore. The Character and Necessity of Inquiries Walsh states that an inquiry of this nature can be established under the Act where it is resolved by both Houses of Parliament that it is expedient that a tribunal be established for inquiring into a definite matter described in the Resolution as of urgent public importance and continues to point out that The Tribunals value lies in its capacity to persuade the public that the full facts have been established and generally assist in restoring public confidence in the integrity of government. Inquiries may be held where one of three sets of events arise. This may be an occasion where the facts require public investigation, in that they are unknown but of immense public concern. Secondly, when the facts of an event are disputed, with conflicting versions of events which need to be reconciled, this will give rise to grounds for inquiry. Thirdly, and a theme common to truth commissions, is where the facts are known and have come to be accepted on a mass public level but still continue to be denied on an official level. These inquiries are designed to be transparent on a public capacity, thus they do not sit in private under the provisions of the Act. The role of the inquiry is characteristically inquisitorial although critics, notably of the Saville Inquiry, have suggested that there has been an overlap into adversarial practices in this case, in particular regard to examination of witnesses backgrounds, in the context of their lives both prior to and following 30th January 1972, as being relevant to the matter at hand. How individuals have conducted their lives in the years following Bloody Sunday appears completely remote to why unarmed civilians were shot at the hands of state bodies, in the view of this paper. .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .postImageUrl , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:hover , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:visited , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:active { border:0!important; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:active , .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ubdf71a69be7b96b4b1d0ae855b14017b:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: LaptopsPalm(99) EssayTribunals of this kind have all the powers of the High Court, whereby they require witnesses to attend and require documents to be produced. These .

Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Missed Placed Anger Re-Worked Professor Ramos Blog

Missed Placed Anger Re-Worked Anthony Salazar Sefferino Ramos ENGL-261-20 March 7, 2019 When stories are about a time where people face racism and slavery with the moral of the people of this day and age as it brings much trouble as it meets the controversial topic. As people saw the story â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn† by Mark Twain, the story showed the readers a time when Africans were once slaves in America. So, this caused some readers to see this story as supporting racism since it used derogatory terminology and described how treated the black people. Even to this day, this new generation of readers seem to forget what virulent racism is, as they seem to advocate censoring the story â€Å"The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn,† or even not to let kids read it since it could make the young readers a racist, but that is just not true. While this story fits within a narrow line where many can make points as to why the story is or is not racist, but it is indeed a story that clearly goes against racism both in the late 1800s and today. The causes of the story not being racist can be shown throughout its chapters. The story centers on a kid named Finn, who ran away from his terrible father to get back to his hometown to point he faked his death and ran with a slave named Jim who is also running away. Though the story uses the â€Å"n-word,† it never prompted racism since it focuses on the characters’ moral change. For instance, this is clear when the pair later meet two con artists who kept their secret of Jim being a runaway slave but was soon sold off by the con-artist. That is when Finn meets Tom another main character from another one of Twain’s books, and they rescue Jim. Later, Finn gets back home with Jim and Tom to learn Finn’s dad is dead and Jim is now a free slave. Then Tom and Jim went their separate ways, and Finn decides to not stay in his home-town but to continue traveling to have more adventures. This story again demonstrates that the novel doesn’t support racism, but instead goes against racism. Though many people would not agree since people, especially the United States of America do not want to remember their nations dark past. Though many Americans are disgusted that the story uses a racial slur and showcases a part of the countries history that they wish never happened, the story shows it is against racism by not allowing people to forget that slavery did take place and that it was morally wrong. As many Americans grow knowing that racism wrong, they tend to forget that there are times when people need to show why slavery and racism are wrong, but instead, they try to hide that their country did practice slavery or just say it is terrible without reflecting on the past. When Finn says â€Å"get up and hump yourself, Jim! There ain’t a minute to lose. They’re after us!† there is a clear connection to emotion (Twain 147). This shows a change in Finn’s character as an uncivilized kid living in the south because he is showing concern not just of himself, but of Jim, where he could have just been worried about himself and left Jim behind. Then another point in the story, at the end where Twain wrote, â€Å"We had Jim out of the chains in no time† it is showing that slavery is not a positive thing (Twain 289). Jim is now metaphorical and physically freed, he no longer has a chain. This proves the point that the story is not racist or supporting slavery because a man of color is no longer a slave or being discriminated by the people around him. Some readers will still believe it as a story supporting racism, but really this story is about a victim of racism and slavery. Another point as to why the story is not racist is that it brings out the character Jim out as more than a slave. As Emma Milliken describes, â€Å"Huck saw Jim as a stupid, superstitious, escaped slave,† but that is not the whole story (Milliken 1). When a story is made the writer needs to show a character, and the readers need to understand the character fast. In context wise, it makes sense for a man of color to be a slave and simple for the story as this is for children. That is why Jim seems to be a stupid, superstitious, escaped slave, though later in the story Jim is more than meets the eyes. In an article by David L. Smith, he explains, â€Å"Yet he portrays Jim as a compassionate, shrewd, thoughtful, self-sacrificing, and even wise† (Smith 297). As Smith is explaining Jim is more than a slave at the beginning of the story, because Jim impacted and changed Finn’s moral and helped the nurse Tom a thing not many people can or would do and is even harder for someone that a slave. Where we see a one-dimensional character as a slave but is actually a full characterized one where throughout the story people support to see him be free at the end of the story. These parts in the story point out as to why the story is not racist as Jim becomes free at the end. Though people are trying to erase harsh words in the story to lessen the racism, it is not helping people become less racist. When a harsh word that depicts the reason as to why racism is wrong is removed or replaced, it does not reinforce that racism is wrong but removes the strong reason as to why racism is wrong. To replace the â€Å"n-word† with slavery is just making the story lose its meaning as Michiko Kakutani says, â€Å"Nigger, which appears in the book more than 200 times, was a common racial epithet in the antebellum South, used by Twain as part of his characters’ vernacular speech and as a reflection of mid-nineteenth century social attitudes along the Mississippi River† (Kakutani 305). The story is from a time where the n-word and slavery are common, but one has deeper impact to the readers psychology since they give the â€Å"n-word† more power over them and the â€Å"n-word† is mostly used on black people, and slavery is a word used throughout history and not just in the United States of America. Another point is that if the â€Å"n-word† is swapped to something less harsh it will make the story lose its impact on the reader. As Kakutani also says, â€Å"Tampering with a writer’s words underscores both editors’ extraordinary hubris and a cavalier attitude embraced by more and more people in this day of mash-ups, sampling, and digital books-the attitude that all texts are fungible† (Kakutani 305). Kakutani is ultimately stating that if a story of any kind with great writing can be rewritten to an extent to suit a person’s agenda, then any story can be deemed racist and changed to a point its loses its theme that some readers connect to. Then there are people against the story as, Annemarie Hamlin and Constance Joyner wrote, â€Å"The most calamitous, gut-wrenching moment of class occurred when Dr. Hamlin calmly allowed the word Nigger to flow from her lips. Unless blessed with large amounts of melanin, one cannot imagine how from zero to twenty seconds, a trusting smile, willingness to participate, and a steady heartbeat can turn into a confused grimace, an unwillingness to continue, and overwhelming heartbreak† (Annemarie Hanlin, etc 13). Though she is against Huckleberry Finn including the n-word and their class including it, it shows that the word still causes an impact to people and brings up something that not many people would like to bring up. That is why the story with the controversial issue must not be changed as its loses its meaning and people will not talk about the stuff they necessarily will bring up if it weren’t for the story and if the â€Å"n-word† is replaced people will change it to suit their needs. Thus, the story that goes against racism and the ideas of slavery is misunderstood. As some readers believe that Jim being present shows it supports racism and slavery but are wrong as Jim is free at the end of the story. Though dis-proven others will say, Jim, being introduced in the story as a runaway slave is racist. Even though in context it makes sense and his character is more than that as he did an act not many people and as well as a slave will do. Then removing the â€Å"n-word† makes the story less racist but takes away the point as to why â€Å"n-word† is there and takes away that the story is going against racism. Those are the reasons as to why the novel by Mark Twain is not racist or supporting slavery because it goes against the ideas of slavery and is a story going against racism as a black man is free at the end of the story. : Hamlin, Annemarie, and Constance Joyner. â€Å"Racism and Real Life.† Radical Teacher, no. 80, Dec. 2007, pp. 12–18. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=ehhAN=29363695site=ehost-live. Kakutani, Michiko. â€Å"Light Out, Huck, They still want to Sivilize you.† The Norton Anthology American Literature, pp. 304-306 Milliken, Emma. â€Å"The Humanity/Ies of Huck Finn: A Journey Down the River of Hope.† Journal of College Admission, no. 216, Summer 2012, pp. 2–3. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=truedb=ehhAN=85798913site=ehost-live. Smith, David. â€Å"From Huck, Jim and American Racial Discourse.† The Norton Anthology American Literature, pp. 296-298. Twain, Mark. â€Å"Adventures of Huckleberry Finn.† The Norton Anthology American Literature, pp.108-290.