Sunday, May 24, 2020
Organ Donations after Death The process of gift giving is the act in which someone voluntarily offers a present for someone else, without compensation. Across all nations, people in need of transplants sit on a waiting list while the war on organ donation ethics continues. After death, one person can help as many as eight people by donating their organs. Organ transplantations raise singularly difficult ethical in its requirements in its obligation for donated organs. Mandatory organ donations seem drastic but we must consider the reality that every year thousands of people die waiting for organ transplants. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s look at the circumstances being for or against organ donations after death. Definition of voluntary organ donation - giving up any part of your body for scientific research or to another human for a transplant (this will be specified in their will which organ, any preferences with the organ). Definition of mandatory organ donation - this must occur upon death, regardless of families or the deceased wishes. First of all, before I even proceed on to this argument, I would like to point out that the body is your own body, nobody elseÃ¢â¬â¢s. Therefore after death we should be able to decide what happens to our bodies. This can be done simply by having a will made prior death which also gives some peace to the family to accommodate the deceased wishes. Nevertheless, after death the body is just that, a body. So the questions are to why we as a nation should waste aShow MoreRelatedOrgan Donation After Death By Toni Gross1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages Organ Donation After Death by Toni Gross Specific Purpose Statement: Ã¢â¬â¹To invite my audience to consider the pros and cons of donating organs after death and to consider where this leads into the future. Thesis: Ã¢â¬â¹Organ donation is the process of giving an organ or a part of an organ and transplanting it into another person in order for them to survive, today I am wanting to better understand the different views on organ donating so I can make a better decision on deciding whether to registerRead MoreEuthanasia Organ Donation And The Effects On Organ Shortages1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesENG106 Professor Tiedt Euthanasia Organ Donation and the Effects on Organ Shortages Ã¢â¬Å"The shortages in transplantable organs worldwide not only leads to unnecessary death, but also to grave human right abuses though illegal methods of procuring organsÃ¢â¬ (Statz, 2006, p. 1).With the decrease in solid organs available, the demand for organs increase and fail to meet the needs of patients facing organ failure. The only options to receive an organ includes receiving an organ from a family member, begin turningRead MoreOrgan Donation : Persuasive Speech909 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesOrgan Donation Rhetorical Analysis Organ donation has been a major controversy for many years now. There are those people who favor it and the ones who do not. According to the United States Organ and Tissue Transplantation Association, organ donation is defined as tissue or organ removal from a deceased or living donor, for transplantation purposes. Tissues and organs are moved in a surgical procedure. Afterwards, they are transplanted to a recipient to ensure their recovery (Francis 2015). OrganRead MoreIs Organ Donation Ever Not Accepted?1221 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOrgan donation is a successful process of removing tissues or organs surgically from one person to another (Cleveland Clinic, 2013). Many questions based on organ donation run along the lines of why people do not donate, but many do not realize that not everyone is allowed or able to donate because some people are not physically capable to have a successful transplant (Prigent et al., 2014). Meaning that the donorÃ¢â¬â¢s organs are too weak, or the don orÃ¢â¬â¢s organs are too old, in some cases the donor andRead MoreWaiting Before Waiting By Merriam Webster Essay1595 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesa game of life and death. Instead of counting days until the abundant aroma of the plentifully Thanksgiving meal, it was how many days until one dies because they are in need of an organ to sustain life and all it has to offer. This is the thought of more than 4,500 Georgians who are currently waiting for an organ transplant according to Georgia Organ Donation records. Organ donation is a need that never come to a halt, instead it is a need that increase daily, becoming an organ donor is very simpleRead MoreOrgan Donation And The Death Donor1538 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages Organ donation has been on the downward trend in the last couple of years while the need for healthy organ donors are on the rise. On the average day, twenty-two people die while waiting on the organ transplant list. While it can only take one person to be a living donor to save a life, and in the case of being a donor after death, one person can save up to eight people. Since the gap between organ donation and the need for organs continues to grow apart, something has to be done to reverse thisRead MoreOrgan Donation And The Ethical Implications1441 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesDeath is not a pleasant thought to the everyday person, even though it is a simple fact of life. For some it is a welcome event that can alleviate suffering and pain and in the end save the life of another. The simple decision of becoming an organ donor can save lives and improve the quality of life of the recipient. When an individual is in need of an organ transplant, it is typically known that they are in need of an organ that facilitates a restoration of physiological functioning and will oftenRead MorePersuasive Outline-Organ Donation886 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPERSUASIVE SPEECH OUTLINE Ã¢â¬â ORGAN DONATION Topic:Ã Organ donation Thesis Statement:Ã Becoming an organ donor after death is not only an important decision for yourself, but it is also an important decision for the life that you may have the power to save. Purpose:Ã To persuade my audience to consider becoming organ donors after death Ã Introduction: 1. Organ donation is a selfless way to give back to others, and to be able to make a huge difference by giving another person a second chanceRead MoreImportance Of Organ Donation Essay1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Importance of Organ Donation While researching about organ donation, many articles brought forth the fact of how important organ donation is. This topic, however, is a big controversy among many people, especially families. Several articles, magazines, and previous research articles all share what organ donation really is and why it is important. By being a donor, you can save many lives in the end. My goal for this paper is to bring forth the importance of organ donation. Reasons to why itRead MorePersuasive Speech On Organ Donation1048 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pageshigh enough. These people need organs, and it is on us to help. It takes just one of us to save as many as eight people on the list. People need to be educated on organ donation and the opportunities it creates rather than a hasty decision that is made when you apply for your driverÃ¢â¬â¢s license. Organ donation is an amazingly powerful and underestimated practice. I believe everyone should become more open to the idea of helping others through the dona tion of their organs, which would otherwise be entirely
Thursday, May 14, 2020
On September 11, 2001 a terrorist attack took place on United States soil that filled the nation with mass hysteria. Three planes were hijacked and flown into various locations killing roughly 3,000 Americans, which lead to social and political landscape changes (Morgan 1). The discussed change in landscape is increased Ã¢â¬Å"prejudice, discrimination, and desire for vengeanceÃ¢â¬ by Americans towards anyone who would fall under the stereotypical image of a terrorist. The government and citizens all asked questions alike, Ã¢â¬Å"Why, how, and who did this?Ã¢â¬ The government had failed in doing its job as protector of its citizens. To act on this failure of protection, President George W. Bush Ã¢â¬Å"initiated warrantless domestic surveillance by the NSAÃ¢â¬ in hopes that they could prevent another attack like this from ever occurring again (Schell par. 11). The government began to search Ã¢â¬Å"layers of phone numbersÃ¢â¬ and deal with the U.S. Postal Service in order to find those responsible for the terrorist attack that took place (Perrow 2). This faced controversy for there was question on wether or not these methods were a violation of the Fourth amendment. The Fourth amendment, part of the Bill of Rights, protects citizens from unwarranted search and detainment. However, the topic in question was whether or not the search of Ã¢â¬Å"metadataÃ¢â¬ or phone records, was violating the Fourth amendment (Schell par.6). A Supreme Court Case from 1979 unmeaningly made the search of metadata legal, but lawsuits haveShow MoreRelatedGlobalization and Religion Essay1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescaused by globalization over the past few decades has fostered an environment of increased religious intolerance. While at one point, religions were strictly separated by geographical borders, the religious landscape has drastically changed over time. Blending cultures, ethnic groups, political beliefs, as well as religions has created a new type of society. This society has become much more diverse in terms of backgrounds and beliefs. Ellingson says, Globalization and modernization has furtherRead MoreIslamic Extremism And The Islamic World Essay1811 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconnected to many different global and political factors that have led to itÃ¢â¬â¢s significance on the world-stage. The question arises, why is Islam so directly connected to violence? This can be due to the lack of knowledge, it is essential to recognize the need for a more accurate understanding of Islam. In order to make sense of the jihad, for instance, it is helpful to know more about Islamic understandings of God, revelation, and the religious and social requirements for the faithful. Events whichRead MoreU.s. Midd le East Policy1631 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAny discussion of U.S. Middle East policy is integral to the national political discourse. A presidential or congressional candidate has to prove her/his foreign policy knowledge on the campaign trail, but unfortunately the electorate is generally not informed enough to critically assess a candidateÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding, which risks giving our leaders virtually unchecked power to make policy in our name. An important part of educating young citizens in a democracy is to teach them the tools they willRead MoreAnalysis Of A Little Piece Of Ground810 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesElizabeth Laird tells the story of the Palestinian, Israeli war from a childÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective. The title of the story is a metaphor for the Palestinians hope for their own piece of ground which is represented by a soccer field. The novel tells of the social and political injustice of children living in conflict zones. Whilst the novel provides the reader with a compelling story it has a major flaw that it portrays the Palestinians as victims and the Israelis as hostile. Consequently, A Little Piece of GroundRead MoreThe American Dream By Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie And Mohsin Hamid1708 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand I only became black when I came to America.Ã¢â¬ (Adichie 359) She was of course aware of colorism amongst her people - some believing that possessing lighter skin somehow made them superior, but in America race was everything! Race determined your social status, the neighborhood you lived in, the opportunities available to you, your chances of success and how difficult the life would be. And in America, being black was considered the lowest in the hierarchy. Ifemelu would also learn that being a Ã¢â¬Å"non-AmericanÃ¢â¬ Read MoreThe Marginalized American Dream By Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie And Mohsin Hamid1707 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesand I only became black when I came to America.Ã¢â¬ (Adichie 359) She was of course aware of colorism among he r people - some believing that possessing lighter skin somehow made them superior, but in America race was everything! Race determined your social status, the neighborhood you lived in, the opportunities available to you, your chances of success and how difficult the life would be. And in America, being black was considered the lowest in the hierarchy. Ifemelu would also learn that being a Ã¢â¬Å"non-AmericanÃ¢â¬ Read More The Evolution of Public Administration in American Society Essay1392 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageschanges. Public administration formally became a recognized academic and professional field in the late 19th century. Many public administration scholars contend that the start of public administration becoming a field of study was the 1887 Political Science Quarterly article Ã¢â¬Å"The Study of AdministrationÃ¢â¬ by a young Woodrow Wilson. (Shafritz, Russell, Borick, 2011, pg. 28) Woodrow Wilson was classified as being a member of the Progressive Movement. The Progressives were a varied group ofRead MoreGeorge Washington s President Of The United States961 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesin regards to social, religious, and political ideologies. In his attempt to change the landscape of America, the president has exploited the priveleage of executive power, by circumventing Congress to redefine immigration laws. Furthermore, in violation of the Tenth Amendment, President Obama filed a lawsuit in July of 2010, preventing the state of Alabama and Arizona from enforcing federal immigration laws t o protect their citizens and economic interests. Ã¢â¬Å"The basis of our political system is theRead MoreThe Views Of The Middle East1456 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesnoticeable on the social landscape of America. Changes in religious traditions are difficult for any nation to endure. When you consider that Christianity has been the primary religion in America since it was founded, itÃ¢â¬â¢s understandable why Christians have not been so willing to accept the Islamic faith into American culture. Furthermore, the majority of Americans still believe in the slogan Never Forget or Always Remember which is forever attached to the events of September 11, 2001. With onlyRead MoreThe 2000S Were A Tumultuous Time In The United States.1678 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesZuckerkornÃ¢â¬â¢s insightful revelation of the WMD photos actually being pictures of balls greatly intensifies the satirical reference into overt derision toward the Bush administrationÃ¢â¬â¢s actual usage of questionable evidence in taking the country to war. September 11, 2001 shook America to its core. On that day, fear reigned as terrorists attacked the financial and power centers of America, resulting in almost 3,000 deaths. Rattled Americans turned to their leader. In the weeks after, President BushÃ¢â¬â¢s approval
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Salman Farooq Ghani Mr. Weigel Honors English VII 11 December 2004 King Solomons Mines Henry Rider Haggard sets out to create a peculiarly thrilling and vigorous tale of adventure, in his book King Solomons Mines. King Solomons Mines is a romantic adventure tale. Sir Henry Curtis, Captain Good and the Allan Quatermain set out on a perilous journey in search for a lost companion and fabled treasure. The book is based in Zululand, Africa and conveys the fascination Sir Henry R. Haggard found in Africas landscape, wild life, and mysterious past (Drabble 210). This term paper relates to how Sir Henry Rider Haggards experiences and life in Africa have influenced his writings and in particular King Solomons Mines. Sir Henry RiderÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦In Kukuanaland, they encounter a barbaric king, Twala. According to Haggard Twala appearance was that of an enormous man with the most entirely repulsive countenance we had ever beheld (103). Umpoba, the mysterious Zulu servant, steps forward to claim his right to the throne (Sir Henry Rider Haggard (1856-1925) 3). After a series of bloody battles, Twala is overthrown, and Umpoba, the rightful heir becomes king (Haggard 175). Finally Sir Henry, Captain Good, and Allan set out for King Solomons Mines, accompanied by an evil witch-doctor Gagool (Haggard 187). In the deep chambers of the mines Gagool deserts the company, and seals the passage to leave them hopelessly trapped (Sir Henry Rider Haggard (1856-1925) 3). Having abandoned hope the company surrender themselves to death but as they say where theres life theres hope, (Haggard 212) they manage to find a way out of the miserable mines and Allan Quatermain scrambles a few diamonds w ith him. On their homeward journey, they find Neville on the outskirts of the desert (Haggard 232). The company returns home rich, famous and successful. Allan Quatermain is a first person narration by the author. Allan is a veteran elephant hunter. He is recruited by Captain Good and Henry Curtis on their expedition to King Solomons Mines. Allan is described as a timid man; he is not much of an adventurer. He prefers to stay on the safe side. Allan os reluctant to undertake the journey, heShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of The Passage Of Proverbs 1670 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEXEGETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE PASSAGE OF PROVERBS 3 Exegetical Summary: Literary Context: Proverbs 3:1-12, Wisdom is the most valuable thing you will process so hold on to it tightly. 3: 1-4 when you are taught good doctrine it leads to wisdom by having reliable teachers 3:5-6 To Rest in God because you trust in His leading. 3:7-10 God will reward you for being obedient to His instructions. 3:11-12 God will correct you when you do wrong, but the wisdom is in knowing this. Historical Context: AuthorRead MoreColonial Americ When Slavery Got Mean1599 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesinternational affair. There were different types of bondage back then, some even amicable. In Ã¢â¬Å"The Rise and Fall of Indentured Servitude in the Americas: An Economic Analysis (1984),Ã¢â¬ David Galenson writes how the indentured servant labor force was a barter system whereby a person of little means might sign on to work on a farm, mine, or even received passage on a ship for a period of time or till the debt is paid and then that person was free to go live her life as a free citizen. With the discoveryRead MoreEssay on Goldmining Business Plan3618 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesLimited is a Sheffield based newly registered company that will excavate gold from leased mines within the United States(Southern Placer Claim in Kern County, Southern California) and Mali (West Africa). The company is founded by John E Roberts. 1.1 Products and Services As stated above, the Company intends to acquire land leases on properties known to have gold deposits. The business will then develop gold mines on these properties with the intent to extract, smelt, and package the gold into barsRead MoreLeadership Audit Analysis 23231 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesLeadership Audit Analysis 2 A Paper Presented to Dr. Austin B. Tucker Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary In Partial Fulfillment Of the Requirements for Biblical Foundations of Christian Leadership 510 CLED 510-B08 LUO (spring 2012) By Jayme D. Carter L24507613 3/03/2012 CONTENTS IntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..1 The Relational Skills AuditÃ¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..2 The Task Skills AuditÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦...3 The Leadership Style AuditÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Read MoreFigurative Language and the Canterbury Tales13472 Words Ã |Ã 54 Pages Ã¢â¬ ¢ The Lord sits above the water floods. The Lord remains a King forever. The Lord shall give strength to his people. The lord shall give his people the blessings of peace. -Ps. 29 Ã¢â¬ ¢ Ã¢â¬Å"Let us march to the realization of the American dream. Let us march on segregated housing. Let us march on segregated schools. Let us march on poverty. Let us march on ballot boxes.... --Martin Luther King, Jr. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Mad world ! Mad king! Mad composition ! 6. antagonist: the character or force opposingRead MoreRastafarian79520 Words Ã |Ã 319 PagesJamaicans regard as their cultural contribution to the world. Later I will return to these issues and will demonstrate how they contribute to the routinization of Rastafari in Jamaica. The nature of this book dictates a heavy reliance on documentary analysis. My focus is interpretation not ethnography. Therefore, I have not sought to generate primary data on the movement but to analyze and re-analyze the growing body of scholarly and popular literature on the movement, including sociological and anthropologicalRead Morewisdom,humor and faith19596 Words Ã |Ã 79 Pagesseventeenth-century philosopher Thomas Hobbes and others, and an inferiority theory offered more recently by the philosopher Robert Solomon. Hobbes wrote that Ã¢â¬Å"that the passion of laughter is nothing else but sudden glory arising from some sudden conception of some eminency in ourselves, by comparison with the infirmity of others, or with our own formerly.Ã¢â¬ Conversely, Solomon thinks that in viewing folly (for example, that of the Three Stooges comedies) we can see our own tendency to unwise behavior andRead MoreA Picatrix Miscellany52019 Words Ã |Ã 209 Pagescomprehensive of the grimoires, or handbooks of magic. The attribution to the Andalusian mathematician al-Majriti (or al-Madjriti) (d. ca. 1004-7) is considered pseudo-epigraphic. The Latin translation dates to 1256 and the court of Alphonso the Wise, king of Castille, and exerted a considerable influence on Western magic thereafter. It is said that much of FicinoÃ¢â¬â¢s astrological magic derives from the Picatrix (see I.P.Couliano, Eros and Magic in the Renaissance, University of Chicago Press, 1987, pRead MoreRace Film : The Great And Only Essay10250 Words Ã |Ã 41 PagesBlack directors and actors wanted to make movies for some of the same reasons that Whites went into the business, and many of the same economic conditions that encouraged White successes made Black enterprises almost impossibleÃ¢â¬ (Gaines 94). GainesÃ¢â¬â¢ analysis of economic achievement directs my attention to the efforts of one particular Black filmmaker, William Foster, who may have produced, written, and directed the first Black film in 1913. The Black Press and Black Cinema: William Foster, aka Ã¢â¬ËJuliRead MoreExistentialism vs Essentialism23287 Words Ã |Ã 94 PagesHis use of psudonyms wasn t to conceal his authorship, however, but to represent different points of view and seperate his own philosophical views from other explorations. He writes: In the pseudonymous works, there is not a single word which is mine. Kierkegaard used different names to represent different viewpoints. 2. Jean-Paul Sartre (1905Ã¢â¬â1980) was a French writer and philosopher who is one of the leading figures in 20th-centuryexistentialism. He imagines men as lonely creatures in
Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Every person goes through the period of being a teenager which is 13-18 years. This period is often characterized by unstable emotional state and even psychological stresses. During this period young people are shifting from being a child to being an adult person. In addition, a lot of young people try to establish their roles in the society, to understand their feelings and attitudes. This investigation might be accompanied by the feelings of fear, nervousness and vagueness. It is a common knowledge that this period of change is much harder experienced by a female than by a male. The probable reason is the more obvious change in girlÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance. That has a negative influence on femalesÃ¢â¬â¢ emotional state of feelings. However, malesÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards this change is rather positive. And the source they are addressing themselves to is internet in most cases. As many other people, teenagers tend to consult the internet in order to help themselves to explain and understand how everything should be and work around them. While addressing to the internet teenagers unconsciously compare themselves and situations in their lives to ones that they see on the screen. And that comparison might work as a source of motivation for the teenagers to change something either in them or around them in order to become successful, meet their life expectations and achieve new goals. Approximately 90 percent of all young people have been online. Teenagers are visiting the web sites of their favorite TV shows, singers, bands, movies, video games, etc. Moreover, they are attracted to the commercial sites, since the web sites are designed in bright colors to be appealing in order to attract teenagers and involve them in interactive games (Dotson, Hyatt, 2005). Teenagers are also used to shop online. Approximately 37 percent of children under 12 and 67 percent of teenagers are researching and buying products online on a permanent basis. It was estimated that in 2002 children starting from 5 up to 18 spent 1. 3 billion dollars on online shopping (Dotson, Hyatt, 2005). Internet has a strong influence on teenagers. This paper is going to explore the influence of the internet on teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ behavior and attitude towards their lifestyle by collecting and presenting the findings of different researchers regarding the influence of the internet on the teenagers. Even though the internet helps the teenagers to become more literate in technological issues, it does a direct influence on their sexual behavior and on their perception and attitude towards the world in general. Even though the Internet has its advantages, it consumes a lot of teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ free time. Thus, less time is remaining for their studies, and they also spend less time communicating with their friends and family. According to the time-displacement theory says that if people start a new activity or start using a new technology, they have to reduce time devoted to the old activities or technologies (Shim, 2007). The study conducted by Shim showed that the Internet use has a direct relationship to the reduction of the desire for face-to-face communication with family and friends. In addition, the findings indicated that the Internet significantly changes the teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ attitude towards the members of their family and friends. The more time teenagers spend online, the less is the desire for spending time with family by finding Ã¢â¬Å"an escape in cyberspaceÃ¢â¬ (2007). Thus, teenagers who go online in order to stay away from the face-to-face communication are more likely to have the absence of the desire for the communication with their peers and members of the family. Ã¢â¬Å"89% of teens use the Internet at least once per week, and 61% use it daily. Most of the time spent on the Internet is used instant messaging and emailing friends they know from school and other real life locations and activitiesÃ¢â¬ (Pyle, 2008). The Internet has also a strong influence on teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ sexual behavior. The Internet has a huge impact on the formation of the teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ sexual behavior and the attitude towards the sexual affairs. The study done by Peter and Valkenburg proves that the exposure to the Internet sexual materials leads to the greater sexual uncertainty and more positive attitudes towards the free sexual exploration (2008). Teenagers feel more comfortable to bring up the conversation regarding the intimate topics online rather than personally with their friends. However, sometimes when they meet in reality with the person they discussed these intimacy-related topics, there is a probability for a trouble to happen, since teenagers are not ready for any intimate issues in real life (Pyle, 2008). Ã¢â¬Å"Online group interactions to exchange intimate experiences and techniques have led to the collective development of new sexual scripts on the InternetÃ¢â¬ (Ngo, Ratliff, Ross, 2008). A research fellow at the Hoover Institute Mary Eberstadt states that nowadays for teenagers pornography is as cool as cigarettes were in 1950s (Melby, 2010). According to the survey in which 594 students participated, it was found that small children (8-10 years) are not so exposed to the Internet pornography (less than two percent). However, later they are much more exposed to watch the pornography online Ã¢â¬Å"by age 11 (11 percent), age 12 (16 percent) and age 13 (21 percent). The mean age of first exposure was 14. 3 for boys and 14. 8 for girlsÃ¢â¬ (Melby, 2010). It is found that males having the Internet access experience initiate earlier the oral sex experience that those ones without the Internet access (Kraus, Russel, 2008). In addition, teenagers with the Internet access are more inclined to have sexual relationships earlier than those who have no Internet access (Melby, 2008). Internet also serves as an information search tool for teenagers for their educational purposes. The Internet contain different kinds of materials which are either hard to find or unaffordable for a person to purchase but can be easily downloaded from the Internet. Majority of the teenagers has conveyed their parents that the Internet is quite useful and necessary for school studies. A great number of teens and adults searched the information about the schools, universities and future employers exactly in the Internet (Hitlin, Rainie, 2005). The most recent Pew Internet Project survey found the following: 87% of all youth between the ages of 12 and 17 use the internet. That translates into about 21 million people. Of those 21 million online teens, 78% (or about 16 million students) say they use the internet at school. Put another way, this means that 68% of all teenagers have used the internet at school. This represents growth of roughly 45% over the past four years from about 11 million teens who used the internet in schools in late 2000. In the Pew Internet Project survey in late 2000, we found that 73% of those ages 12 to 17 used the internet and that 47% of those in that age cohort used the internet at school (Hitlin, Rainie, 2005). Teenagers got used to surf the Internet while being at school. Among those teenagers who said that they use the Internet from different locations approximately 18% of all online teens say that they use the Internet at school (Hitlin, Rainie, 2005). Yet, there are about 37% of teenagers that believe that their peers use the Internet too much for cheating but not for educational purposes. Moreover, teenagers and parents have controversial opinions regarding the issue of web-literacy of children by the time they actually start attending the school (Hitlin, Rainie, 2005). One of the most important educational purpose of the Internet is the promotion of the sexual health for teenagers. There was created a new computer game based on promotion of sexual health. t was found that this game is quite popular according to the number of visits to the site which is approximately 250,000 players. They were attracted by the e-mail responses from game players where the learnt experience was shared publicly. Such kind of computer interactive games is useful not only in promoting the sexual health information, but also in Ã¢â¬Å"enabling individual users to identify their own risk behaviours in a Ã¢â¬Ënon-confrontationalÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ënon-emb arrassingÃ¢â¬â¢ environmentÃ¢â¬ (Carlin, Goold, Ward, 2003). To conclude, it is obvious that the Internet has really strong influence on the teenagers, their perceptions and attitudes towards the world around them. Internet is a powerful tool which unconsciously shapes their mentality. The major negative aspect is that the Internet consumes a lot of teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ free time. Since the Internet takes the bigger part of their free time, teenagers spend less time on their studies, communication with peers and family members. They kind of find the escape in the cyberspace. In addition, one more negative aspect is the influence of the Internet on teenagersÃ¢â¬â¢ sexual behavior.
Friday, April 3, 2020
My proposition Is for an essay based around the hypothesis that It Is getting increasing difficult to categories music due to its evolution over time. My essay is going to be split in to six main parts; the introduction/proposal, separate analyses of each genre, and a final conclusion. As this assignment is purely an aural assessment of each genre, each analysis section will remain separate, I will not be comparing genres or critically commenting on them. Three out of the four given genres are very broad categories by which to label music.Jazz, Classical and Country music all have a long history, In which the characteristics of their music have changed over the years. I plan on identifying these characteristics, identifying whats changed and, possibly more importantly, identifying whats stayed the same, as it usually this that enables us to tell these different genres apart. Unfortunately for me, asss Rock is quite a limited genre and is not the greatest genre of choice to help prove my hypotheses correct. We will write a custom essay sample on The Evolution of Genres or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Thankfully, there were a great number of technological advances throughout the offs and this allowed people to become more creative and experimental with their music.So even though let on a much shorter time scale, there still should be apparent differences throughout the decade. I will be investigating what makes asss rock different to asss or asss rock, how technological/ creative advancements changed the music and whether or not the keyset is the worst musical instrument ever invented. The conclusion of my essay will be a brief overview of the piece, highlighting the exponential evolution of music today and the creation of the new genres, which allow people to experiment with the traditional characteristics of classic genres.This essay Is going to serve as an Investigation Into the different characteristics that make up the basis of different genres of music. These chosen genres are; Jazz, Country, Classical and asss Rock music. I intend to analyses a number of songs/pieces from each of these genres and see whether or not certain trademark characteristics are present in all of the pieces from that genre. I also intend to investigate whether or not the characteristics by which we identify a piece of musics genre have changed over time.Jazz I will have to try my utmost not to offend any Jazz fans by trying to categories and fine Jazz music In only a few hundred words. They teach you theres a boundary line to music. But, man, theres no boundary line to art. Charlie Parker (Raiser, 1977, p. 27) Jazz has always been a very expressive and artistic genre of music and when you combine that with a history that spans over a century, it makes it very difficult to pin point Its key characteristics. If I had to list some of the characteristics of a progression, a syncopated/swing feel rhythm and, possibly most importantly, improvised solos.Many Jazz standards, such as Theologies Monks Round Midnight ND Johnny Greens Body and Soul, abide by these rules. Having this predetermined structure provides soloists with a great deal of freedom but could be considered restrictive for other the musicians, but this is not the case. The use of 7th and 9th help give the chord progression a fresh feel, chord substitutions are often used, commonly trio-tone substitutions, and changes in key and/or tempo are also highly attractive and provide a large degree of improvisational freedom. (Wilson, 2002) The music has gotten thick. Guys give me tunes and theyre full of chords.I cant play hem. .. think a movement in Jazz is beginning away from the conventional string of chords Miles Davis (Davis, 1958) The question is; are these characteristics still visible in Jazz music today? Unfortunately, its hard to tell. Over the years many different Jazz hybrid genres have been created such as; acid Jazz, cool Jazz, free Jazz, Jazz-rock fusion, bebop, post-bop, jazz-funk, punk Jazz The list goes on. It is rare nowadays for an artist to solely play one style of Jazz, it is an extremely diverse genre and it is therefore pretty much impossible to define Jazz music today.If forced, I would say there are two things by which I identify Jazz, both past and present, and those are improvisation and instrumentation. Improvised solos are still a big part of many genres of Jazz, in fact, its the entire basis of free Jazz and, although many different instruments have been added and taken away over the years, its not quite Jazz unless it has a brass section. Saxophone and trumpet have been the defining characteristics of Jazz for one hundred years and, I think, they always will be. Move got to learn your instrument. Then, you practice, practice, practice.And then, when you finally get up there on the bandstand, forget all that and Just wail. Charlie Parker (Pugnacity, 2006) Country Fortunately for me, country music also has a long and rich history. Country music began in the southern states of America in the sasss and was for many years considered to be hillbillys music and by some people it still is but this is not the case. l think it speaks to our basic fundamental feelings, you know. Of emotions, of love, of breakup, of love and hate and death and dying, mama, apple pie, and the whole thing. It covers a lot of territory, country music does. Johnny Cash (Cash, 2002) Country music first evolved from folk music and in turn inherited many of its traits. Country music was originally very simple; three chord structures, relatable topics and simple instrumentation made songs catchy and memorable. As with folk music, Country music songs often told stories with their lyrics that include characters, dialogue, plot twists and climaxes. Rather than being sung, action will sometimes be spoken. While sometimes country artists will be the stars of their stories and sing them from the first person, other times they will function simply as a narrator.Wolfe, 1999) The instrumentation of a country band we be similar to that of standard rock or harmonica and steel guitars would help give the music its distinctive twangs sound. I-IV-V and I-II-V were popular, the pieces were not often very structurally complex as the main feature of the song was the lyrics. Country music has changed greatly over the years, considering Taylor Swift is a modern example of a country star, youd struggle to find similarities between her music and that of a traditional country music singer such as Jimmie Rodgers.Instruments such as the banjo and the fiddle would mound out of place in one of Swifts chart topping hits but it can be argued that the message and emotions that her songs purvey are that of a country music song. In an interview on The Douglas Show in 1971 , Johnny Cash said that country music was like soul music because it came from the heart and I think that modern country music qualifies by that definition. l think if you sit there and think I have to put this instrument on this song because if I dont people will think that Im in a different genre, then I think that is possibly overthrowing what you do Taylor Swift (Hansel, 2013)Classical We rather incorrectly generalist classical music. Google defines classical music as Serious or conventional music that follows long-established principles rather than a folk, Jazz, or popular tradition, by this definition classical music spans from way back to medieval times right up to modern day. Whereas technically, classical music is music that was composed in the classical era (1730-1820). The music composed in this relatively short period of time abided by a set list of characteristics.Classical music had a lighter, clearer texture than its predec easing era, it utilized a slightly argue orchestra, replaced the formerly popular harpsichord with the recently developed piano and was mainly homophobic. Comparing early and later classical music by this definition would make for short reading as, by the nature of having musical periods, no drastic changes occurred until the next musical age (the romantic period 1815-1910). I regard any music that is played on acoustic orchestral instruments to be classical music.If we were to compare music over the years that fits this description, the change is huge. Considering that the triton was once thought of as the devils interval shows how the opinion of music has changed. Some of the modern experimental uses of tonality, harmony, instrumentation and rhythm in the works of John Cage or Stravinsky would appear like madness to the likes of Beethoven and Bach. l cant understand why people are frightened of new ideas. Im frightened of the old ones -John Cage (Satellite, 2003) Despite all this, classical music is seen as a form of music for a certain class of people.Traditionally, the only people that could afford to go see a live classical performance were wealthy and the people who were wealthy were usually middle class or higher and unfortunately this stigma has stuck. Gs Rock You may think that not much could have changed in the space of a decade but youd be wrong. Due to the nature of modern life and the exponential growth of technology, new musical trends seem to come and go in the blink of an eye. The asss was no rose to fame and some faded away.The asss saw the creation and rise of the power ballad, bands such as Bon Jove and Defy Leopard first mastered the art in the early asss which resulted in lengthy successful careers but the power ballad didnt reach its peak until the latter half of the asss. By 1987 almost every band was impelled to include at least one or two ballads on an album to ensure decent sales. Once bands such as Skid Row and Poison established their dominance, the power ballad had nearly run its course, and a certain blandness became all too commonplace. Peak, 2012) Punk Rock was created in the late asss and rose had to mainstream popularity by the asss. It was a heavily distorted, emotionally charged sub-genre of rock that opposed the asss synch pop of the time with stripped down instrumentation and often politically charged, anti-establishment lyrics. This new, rebellious genre of music paved the way for new sub-genres of rock such as alternative rock. The name alternative rock was given to a new form of rock created in the late sasss that didnt fit in with any other mainstream genres.New sub-genres were cropping up so quickly, they were running out of names. Alternative rock bands such as The Cure, R. E. M and the Smiths had all rose to fame by the asss. The rapid development of music technology had a massive impact on music in the sasss. The creation of electronic music had become much easier by the sasss with some bands completely replacing all instruments with synthesizes sounds. Bands such as The Human League, Duran Duran and the Rhythmic found success using electronic sounds but people soon became bored and popularity fell by the late asss.
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Euphemistic Expressions in Kurdish Free Online Research Papers Euphemistic Expressions in Kurdish By: Karwan Omer Siddiq 1. Introduction: This study is designed to analyze a collection of Kurdish euphemistic expressions for death using the framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory propounded by George Lakoff. Nevertheless, this is not the only purpose of the study as it examines the corpus items to find out the exact linguistic devices they reveal, and finally discovers the sources of the devices as well. The study is divided into an introduction, theoretical background which covers the definition and classification of euphemism and taboo in addition to introducing Conceptual Metaphor Theory, the conceptualization of death in Kurdish, and finally the seven conceptual mappings over which the corpus examples are distributed which include: death as a loss, death as joyful life, death as a rest, death as a reward, death as the end, death as a journey and death as surrender. 2. Taboo and Euphemism: Definition and Classification MankindÃ¢â¬â¢s failure to come to grips with death has been pervasive in different times and societies. In fact, human beings have traditionally felt reluctant to deal with the subject of death using straightforward terms. Whether owing to superstition, fear, or social respect, the fact remains that when facing death language users try to soften the effect of what they really wish to communicate. To this end, they resort to euphemism, i.e. the semantic formal process thanks to which the taboo is stripped of its most explicit, offensive or obscene overtones. From this viewpoint, euphemism is not merely a response to a forbidden subject; rather it provides a way to speak about the taboo, that is, about the unspeakable, about those concepts banned from public domain and removed from our consciousness. This refusal to speak freely of human mortality is symptomatic of the overall discomfort with the subject of death as a whole (Fernandez, 2006: 101-2). The word euphemism comes from the Greek word euphemos. Its first use is said to have been in religion because people were afraid of using those words that were considered taboo. Since people did not want to behave in a way that would upset the gods, they used words which they thought would give them good fortune instead. Euphemisms have been traced back to the Indo-European languages and it seems possible that more taboo words existed then than what is the case today. Whichever the case might be, modern languages in general (like Kurdish, English, etc.) contain countless euphemisms dealing with the theme of death. It is claimed that people started using euphemisms because they believed that they would end up in trouble of some sort if they spoke about or used the word death. A theory, which apparently is quite widespread, claims that this belief is what has made death taboo in the majority of the English speaking cultures around the world. (www.wikipedia.com). Whether it is true or n ot that people today are afraid of death and taboos, it is not something that they would admit to openly. Even though such fear is associated with uneducated inhabitants of exotic places, some people carry good luck charms, cross their fingers or knock on wood as a way of protecting themselves (Allan Burridge 2006:203). Euphemisms are often applied when we want to hide something that might be considered as upsetting or distasteful; we do this even if the literal meaning is not really that disturbing. This kind of euphemism is often called doublespeak and is frequently used in politics. According to Gladney and Rittenberg (2005:2) the term doublespeak was invented by William Lutz who was allegedly inspired by George OrwellÃ¢â¬â¢s novel 1984, where he mentions Ã¢â¬ËdoublethinkÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËnewspeakÃ¢â¬â¢. One might think that the euphemistic way to talk about death is somewhat peculiar and wonder why it is so taboo to use the Ã¢â¬ËnormalÃ¢â¬â¢ words. Dyer (2006) explains this by claming that if we use other words than death, the healing process after losing a loved one many times becomes more bearable. This claim might sound strange at first, but it is not hard to imagine that it might be a bit easier to handle a loss by thinking that the person has Ã¢â¬Ëfound everlasting peaceÃ¢â¬â¢. By using euphemisms like this people are able to cope better and even distance themselves from what has happened. Kearl (2006) on the other hand, states that some scholars agree that people are denying death, and the fact that death is inevitable, by using euphemisms. But he also mentions that we have been using these terms for a very long time and sometimes we cannot avoid using euphemisms when we want to explain certain aspects of being human. The fact that death is a taboo based on fear is men tioned by Allan and Burridge (1991:153, 2006:222). People are afraid of losing loved ones and of what happens to our bodies when we die, but there is also a fear dealing with what follows after we are dead. No one or at least very few people have experienced death first hand and therefore the Ã¢â¬ËafterlifeÃ¢â¬â¢ is a huge mystery which makes some of us very scared. (From Allan Burridge 1991:153, 2006:222) The issue whether euphemisms are Ã¢â¬Ëgood or badÃ¢â¬â¢ seems to have been debated back and forth over the years. Back in the 1980s, Gross (1985:203) mentioned that many writers perceived it as if people found it very difficult to Ã¢â¬Ëlook death straight in the face; even more difficult than previous generations. Gross also claims that death had surpassed sex as the most forbidden topic. Allan and Burridge (2006:223) draw a parallel between todayÃ¢â¬â¢s taboo on death and the way sex was inhibited during the Victorian period. The repression of sex was followed by a very successful pornographic business and the taboo concerning death today is present at the same time as we are overflowed by books and movies depicting murder and cruel death. They state that the difference is the fact that the pornography during the Victorian times was not as open as the topic of death is in the present day. Gladney and Rittenberg (2005:1) claim that there is another thing that many scholars agree on, and it is the fact that when euphemisms are used in a courteous way, without harming others, it is perfectly alright. On the other hand, when people in power use euphemisms it can change how people look upon many big problems in society and cause them to stop caring. They mention how a government can use euphemisms as a way of making the public less sensitive and not reflect too much over the horrors and pain connected to for example war. This is not the best approach since in fact, it has been discovered that people who speak about accidental brutality in an uncaring way are about to accept it (Gladney Rittenberg 2005:1). 2.1 Classification of Euphemisms: According to Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, many euphemisms fall into one or more of these categories: 1. Terms of foreign and/or technical origin (derriÃ ¨re, copulation, perspire, urinate, security breach) 2. Abbreviations (GD for goddamn, SOB for son of a bitch, BS for bullshit, TS for tough shit, SOL for shit out of luck or PDQ for pretty damn(ed) quick, BFD for big fucking deal, MF for motherfucker, POS for piece of shit, STFU or STHU for shut the fuck/hell up, RTFM for read the fucking manual /restart the fucking machine) o Abbreviations using a spelling alphabet, especially in military contexts (Charlie Foxtrot for Cluster fuck, Whiskey Tango Foxtrot Oscar for What the fuck, over?, Bravo Sierra for bullshit) o Plays on abbreviations (H-e-double hockey sticks for hell, a-double snakes or a-double-dollar-signs for ass, Sugar Honey Iced Tea for shit, bee with an itch or witch with a capital B for bitch, catch (or see) you next Tuesday (or Thursday) for cunt) o Use in mostly clinical settings (PITA for pain in the ass patient) o Abbreviations for phrases that are not otherwise common (PEBKAC for Problem Exists Between Keyboard And Chair, ID Ten T Error or ID-10T Error for Idiot, TOBAS for Take Out Back And Shoot) 3. Abstractions and ambiguities (it for excrement, the situation for pregnancy, going to the other side for death, do it or come together in reference a sexual act, tired and emotional for drunkenness.) 4. Indirections (behind, unmentionables, privates, live together, go to the bathroom, sleep together, sub-navel activities) 5. Mispronunciation (goldarnit, dadgummit, efing c (fucking cunt), freakin, be-atch,shoot) 6. Litotes or reserved understatement (not exactly thin for fat, not completely truthful for lied, not unlike cheating for an instance of cheating) 7. Changing nouns to modifiers (makes her look slutty for is a slut, right-wing element for Right Wing) 8. Slang, e.g. pot for marijuana, laid for sex and so on. Notably, there is some disagreement over whether certain terms are or are not euphemisms. For example, sometimes the phrase visually impaired is labeled as a politically correct euphemism for blind. However, visual impairment can be a broader term, including, for example, people who have partial sight in one eye, or even those with uncorrected poor vision, a group that would be excluded by the word blind. 2.2 The Categorization of Taboos: Euphemisms are motivated by different taboos in society. Every culture has its own topics that are forbidden and should not be talked about directly. Stephen Ullman (1962:205) states that taboos are divided into three categories according to the psychological motivation behind them. The first of these categories is fear, which has motivated different taboos on speaking the names of certain supernatural beings. These include God, the Devil and names of certain animals. Ullman (ibid: 206) mentions the weasel as an example. For example in French the weasel is referred to as a beautiful little woman , in Italian and Portuguese as a little lady and in Swedish as a pretty little girl or a young lady. Other examples include bear, tiger and lion, since dangerous animals are often referred to by using euphemistic references. This has been the case in Finland as well with the bear. People have believed that the bear was originally human or half-human. People have also thought that the bear is much more intelligent than humans are and possesses supernatural powers. All these factors have contributed to the fact that Finnish language has a large variety of euphemisms for the bear. The motivation behind the taboo of God might have something to do with respect as well, as Francis Katamba (1994:86) suggests. He states that God could not be referred to by name, which has resulted in expressions such as the Lord, the King of Kings and the All-Mighty. The clearest taboo motivated by fear must be that of the Devil. The euphemistic expressions associated with the Devil are somewhat humoristic and friendly, perhaps to make the Devil seem less frightening and unfamiliar, as for example in: What in the Sam Hill are you doing?Ã¢â¬ Hughes (2000:44) lists some British English examples such as Old Nick and Lord of the Flies. People also try to avoid direct reference to topics they find unpleasant. Under the category of delicacy fall such topics as death, disease, physical and mental defects and criminal actions. Probably the most natural euphemism related to death would be to pass away, which seems to be appropriate and politically correct in a large number of situations. According to Geoffrey Hughes in A History of English Words death is often referred to as a metaphorical journey in comforting variants and traditional forms such asÃ¢â¬ ¦passing on, going to ones Maker [and] joining the majority (2000:45). Other less-dignified ways of referring to death include to resign ones being, moving into upper management and [being] no longer eligible for the census (Death). The third category in Ullmans discussion on taboos has to do with propriety. The three most common areas in this category are sex, certain body parts and functions and swearing. People find it difficult to talk about going to the toilet, and have invented numerous ways of avoiding direct reference to the topic. Among good friends and acquaintances it may be acceptable to directly ask the location of the toilet or mention the bodily function(s) for which one needs to use it, but in other situations people might ask: Where could I wash my hands? In movies and in television, for example, women often say in a restaurant that they need to go and powder their noses or that they need to freshen up when they need to use the toilet. There are, also a number of different ways to refer to having sex, including to sleep with, go to bed with and make love, as mentioned by Hughes (ibid:45) in the discussion of metaphorical means of avoiding direct reference. When talking about swearing people ofte n use minced oaths. These are expressions based on profanities, but the profanities have been changed to remove the inappropriate characteristics of the original utterance. Among the most common expressions are freaking for fucking, gosh for God, heck for hell and darn for damn (Phrase). 3. The Cognitive Approach: Conceptual Metaphor Theory: In cognitive linguistics, conceptual metaphor, or cognitive metaphor, refers to the understanding of one idea, or conceptual domain, in terms of another, for example, understanding quantity in terms of directionality (e.g. prices are rising). A conceptual domain can be any coherent organization of human experience. The regularity with which different languages employ the same metaphors, which often appear to be perceptually based, has led to the hypothesis that the mapping between conceptual domains corresponds to neural mappings in the brain. This idea, and a detailed examination of the underlying processes, was first extensively explored by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in their work Metaphors We Live By. Other cognitive scientists study subjects similar to conceptual metaphor under the labels analogy and conceptual blending. According to Lakoff and Johnson, There are two main roles for the conceptual domains posited in conceptual metaphors: Source domain: the conceptual domain from which we draw metaphorical expressions (e.g., love is a journey). Target domain: the conceptual domain that we try to understand (e.g., love is a journey). A mapping is the systematic set of correspondences that exist between constituent elements of the source and the target domain. Many elements of target concepts come from source domains and are not preexisting. To know a conceptual metaphor is to know the set of mappings that applies to a given source-target pairing. The same idea of mapping between source and target is used to describe analogical reasoning and inferences. A primary tenet of this theory is that metaphors are matter of thought and not merely of language: hence, the term conceptual metaphor. The metaphor may seem to consist of words or other linguistic expressions that come from the terminology of the more concrete conceptual domain, but conceptual metaphors underlie a system of related metaphorical expressions that appear on the linguistic surface. Similarly, the mappings of a conceptual metaphor are themselves motivated by image schemas which are pre-linguistic schemas concerning space, time, moving, controlling, and other core elements of embodied human experience. Conceptual metaphors typically employ a more abstract concept as target and a more concrete or physical concept as their source. For instance, metaphors such as the days [the more abstract or target concept] ahead or giving my time rely on more concrete concepts, thus expressing time as a path into physical space, or as a substance that can be handled and offered as a gift. Different conceptual metaphors tend to be invoked when the speaker is trying to make a case for a certain point of view or course of action. For instance, one might associate the days ahead with leadership, whereas the phrase giving my time carries stronger connotations of bargaining. Selection of such metaphors tends to be directed by a subconscious or implicit habit in the mind of the person employing them. The principle of unidirectionality states that the metaphorical process typically goes from the more concrete to the more abstract, and not the other way around. Accordingly, abstract concepts are understood in terms of prototype concrete processes. The term concrete, in this theory, has been further specified by Lakoff and Johnson as more closely related to the developmental, physical neural and interactive body. Finally, to clarify the matter, some examples from Lakoff may serve the purpose: 1. Love Is A Journey Source domain: love Target domain: journey a. Progress in the relationship is forward motion 1. They are at a crossroads in their relationship. 2. This relationship isnt going anywhere. 3 Theyre in a dead-end relationship. b. The relationship is a moving object Relationships, like sharks, have to keep moving to stay alive. This marriage is on the rocks. This relationship has been spinning its wheels for years. Their marriage has really gone off the track. 2. Anger Is Heat Source Domain heat Target Domain anger Shes a real hothead. Anger is heat and body is container for emotions You make my blood boil. Let her stew. She got all steamed up. Hes just blowing off steam. He erupted. He boiled over. She felt her gorge rising. He blew his top. He exploded. I cant keep my anger bottled up anymore His temper flared up. His eyes smouldered with rage. He has a fiery temper. 4. Euphemism and the Conceptualization of Death: A corpus of fifty three samples of Kurdish euphemistic expressions for death has been drawn from mainly from A Dictionary of Idioms in Kurdish by Abdulwahab Shekhani (2009:341-5). The expressions obtained from this dictionary can be distributed over a set of linguistic devices or mechanisms employed to substitute the taboos of death and dying in Kurdish. The introductory step of our investigation is to check the corpus items against the linguistic devices in question to reveal the device that is most commonly used in Kurdish to conceptualize death and dying, as shown below: a. The linguistic devices include those that are semantic in nature, such as: 1. Metaphor 2. Metonymy 3. Hyperbole 4. Circumlocution 5. Generic Terms Others are lexical in nature, such as: 1. Learned words 2. Borrowings b. The corpus examples (being translated into English) are distributed over the said devices or mechanisms as follows: Metaphor Amri khwai krd 1- Metaphor Amri khwai bajÃ ª hÃ ªna 2- Metaphor ?wa bar rahmati khwa 3- Metaphor ?uya bar dlovanya khudÃ ª 4- Metaphor 5- Metaphor + hyperbole 6- Metaphor 7- Metaphor 8- Metaphor + hyperbole 9- Metaphor 10- Metaphor + circumlocution -11 Metonymy 12- Metonymy 13- Metonymy 14- Metaphor 15- Metaphor 16- Metonymy 17- Metaphor 18- Metaphor 19- Metaphor 20- Metaphor + circumlocution 21- Metaphor 22- Metaphor 23- Metaphor 24- Metaphor 25- Metaphor + circumlocution 26- Metaphor 27- Metaphor 28- Metaphor 29- Metaphor 30- Metaphor 31- Metaphor 32- Metonymy 33- Metaphor 34- Metaphor 35- Metaphor 36- Metaphor 37- Metaphor 38- Metaphor 39- Generic Term 40- Generic Term 41- Metaphor 42- Metonymy + circumlocution 43- Metonymy 44- Metaphor 45- Metaphor 46- Metaphor 47- Metaphor 48- Metaphor 49- Metaphor 50- ? Borrowing 51- Metaphor 52- Learned word 53- As is clear from the aforementioned examples, metaphors form the majority of the linguistic devices used to mitigate the taboo of death. Statistically, they include 75.47% of the whole corpus. Also within the semantic resources, metonymies constitute 13.20% of the collected corpus, while the remaining resources form negligible proportions. 5. The Conceptual Mappings of Metaphorical Expressions for Death in Kurdish: Within the framework of cognitive linguistics the metaphors observed in the corpus can be analyzed in terms of the cognitive mappings to which they may be assigned. This provides significant information concerning the way in which the taboo of death is actually used, perceived, and mitigated (Fernandez, 2006:113). Allan and Burridge (1991) Bultnick (1998) and Fernandez (2006) have found and explicated a number of conceptual mappings for the consolatory metaphors of death. Here we adopt seven of theses mappings which best serve us to analyze our corpus examples, namely: 1- DEATH IS A JOURNEY 2- DEATH IS A JOYFUL LIFE 3- DEATH IS REST 4- DEATH IS A REWARD 5- DEATH IS THE END 6- DEATH IS A LOSS 7- DEATH IS SURRENDER It is to be noted that the greater number of metaphors view death as a positive event, as a sort of reward in Heaven (Paradise) after a virtuous life on earth. Thus, four out of seven conceptual metaphors referred to conceptualize the domain of death in terms of a domain with positive connotations, namely as a journey, joyful life, surrender, rest, and reward. There are only two sets of correspondences in which death is portrayed negatively: a loss and the end. Thus most of the conceptualizations in the corpus imply a positive value-judgment of death. Here, it is important to note how the positive or negative value-judgment in the death Ã¢â¬â related mappings depends, as Bultnick (1998:84) explains, on the nature of the source domain. Below are the percentages of metaphorical euphemistic substitutes in each cognitive domain: 1- Death is a loss 30.18% 2- Death is a journey 2.5% 3- Death is a joyful life 4% 4- Death is a rest 15% 5- Death is a reward 10% 6- Death is the end 10% 7- Death is surrender 7.5% Here, the conceptual metaphor Death is a loss has the highest range of substitutions (16) , followed by Death is a journey (13), death is a rest (8) Death is a reward(5), Death is the end (5) , Death is surrender (4), and Death is a joyful life (2), which is the least frequent in the corpus. In what follows, we will explain how the above seven source domains are actually applied to give a euphemistic representation of the taboo concepts of death and dying. To serve this purpose, we will deal with those conceptualizations that refer to the larger number of metaphorical substitutes in the corpus examples. 1- Death is a Loss: The domain of death is explained in terms of the domain of loss in over 30% of the corpus date. According to Fernandez (2006:117), this cognitive association has a metonymic basis (the effect of death stands for death) Following Bultnick (1998:44-45), the conceptual basis of this mapping lies in the fact that life is perceived as a valuable object and death is thus seen as the loss of this possession. Therefore, contrary to what happens in the majority of the conceptual mappings observed in the corpus data, the metaphorical alternatives or substitutes arising from this configurative association cannot be said to provide any sort of consolation or relief. In fact, as Allan and Burridge (1991:162) maintain, the conceptual metaphor of death as a loss evokes as Ã¢â¬Å"malign fateÃ¢â¬ , as an event that human beings cannot control, leaving them powerless in the face of the unavoidable event. Out of the 53 corpus examples, 16 occurrences fall under the cognitive mapping of loss. In the f ollowing examples the death as a loss conceptual mapping is the source of the euphemistic substitution: 1 Ã¢â¬â 2 Ã¢â¬â 3 Ã¢â¬â 4 Ã¢â¬â 5 Ã¢â¬â 6 Ã¢â¬â 7 Ã¢â¬â 8 Ã¢â¬â In the first two examples, the focus is obviously on death with the first capable of being interpreted in two ways: the victim is utterly despaired Conceptual Metaphor Source domain Target loss Death and by meeting his fate, he gets rid of this state, or the euphemistic substitute is used by a third party speaker in a pejorative dysphemistic manner . Examples (3) and (8) focus on the value of life and represent a sorrowful expression of the act of dying. Examples (3) through to (7) all emphasize the result of death by avoiding to directly mention the act of dying. 2- Death as a journey : The conceptual metaphor which explains death in terms of a journey with a spiritual destination comes second in the corpus in quantitative terms being the source of almost 25% (13 occurrences) of the entire corpus. As Bultnick (1998:31) points out, it is because of this conceptualization (based on the assumption that the dead person is no longer around) that human mortality is conceptualized as a departure from this world in which a basic domain of experience like death is understood in terms of a different and more concrete domain, as a journey, an association which provides the basis for the verbal mitigation of the taboo. The metaphorical mapping transfers different attributes from the source domain of a journey to the target domain of death. Conceptual Metaphor Source domain Target domain Journey Death More specifically, it presents different sets of conceptual correspondences as a result of using the knowledge we have about journeys to talk about the taboo of death (Fernandez, 2006: 115): First, the act of dying corresponds to the act of leaving: second, the destination of the journey is an encounter with God in Heaven. Third, the dying person is the one that embarks on the journey. In the examples that follow, the act of dying corresponds to the act of leaving, and consequently the deceased (or metonymically his soul) is obviously the person who embarks on the journey: 9 Ã¢â¬â 10 Ã¢â¬â 11 Ã¢â¬â 12 Ã¢â¬â 13 Ã¢â¬â 14 Ã¢â¬â Here, we clearly observe that all the variants of the metaphorical use of the verb (), which include such verbs as (), (), (), () focus on the act of leaving, on the journey itself, rather than on its conclusion. The final destination of the journey, i.e., the encounter with God in Heaven, is based on the religious belief of a joyful meeting with Almighty God. This notion provides the euphemistic support of expressions such as examples (11) and (12). Notably, examples (9) and (13) stand in contrast to each other: the former, though clearly focuses on the act of leaving as mentioned earlier, is representative of an apparently secular concept of viewing the current world as light , illuminated , and joyful. Consequently, the transferal from life to death can be interpreted as a journey into the unknown. The latter example (13) finds the world as a chaotic scene presenting the human being with nothing but sorrow and grief, and thus death is seen as the final cure to get rid of the sce ne. This latter conceptualization has its origin in a religious belief. Additionally, example (14) again presents a metaphor that corresponds to the person who is capable of embarking on a journey. Thus, the dying person is supposed to have moved, and for this reason considered to be alive (Fernandez, 2006:116). The importance of the concept of movement in this cognitive mapping is beyond doubt. In fact, according to Bultnick (1998:34-38), the conceptual metaphor Death as a Journey is a subdivision of the more general conceptualization Death as Movement. In general, the journey from life to the next world can be achieved in two ways. First, the journey is seen as the result of an action performed by some external agent, someone who helps to bring about departure (leaving). Like provider or Almighty God, or the Angel of death (Israel). The second is when the journey is motivated by an unknown force, as in: 15- 16- 3. Death is a Rest : The domain of death is explained in terms of the domain of rest in 15% of the corpus data. The conceptual metaphors listed under this domain conceptualize death in terms of a peaceful rest after an earthly existence. Thus all the metaphors show a positive judgment of death, as in: 17- 18- 19- () 20- 21- According to Fernandez (2006: 121) the underlying notion of all the metaphors included this mapping is based on the fact that a rest, repose, or a sleep are temporary, and therefore, death is also conceptualized as a temporary event. This analogy implies that the cessation on of bodily functions and speech are not automatically identified with the symptoms of physical death, as they are also present in a peaceful sleep. The conceptualization which relates death to a rest or a sleep provides an effective euphemistic reference to the taboo mainly because this association ultimately leads to the denial of death as such: the dying person is no longer dead, but sunk in a comforting sleep. Conceptual metaphor Source domain Target domain Rest Death 4. Death is a Reward: The domain of death is explained terms of the domain of reward in 9% of the corpus examples. Thus reward is granted by Almighty God to those virtuous human beings who have led exemplary lives. Here death is conceptualized as an event which far from being fearful or harmful involves a sort of liberation thanks to which the deceased will find some hope and consolation (Fernandez, 2006: 122). In the following three examples, the death is figuratively associated with a reward achieved by moral discipline after a life full of good deeds. Hence the cognitive metaphors show an anticipation of Almighty GodÃ¢â¬Ës mercy and blessings upon the victim: 22- 23- 24- The following examples envisage life as wretched and those living on Earth as miserable creatures. So, God AlmightyÃ¢â¬â¢s reward for the virtuous and the pious is to help them get rid of this sorrowful earthly life: 25- ? Conceptual metaphor Source domain Target domain Reward Death 6. Death is the End: The domain of death is explained in terms of the domain of the end in 9% of the corpus examples. Following Lakoff (1987:275) and by virtue of the SOURCE Ã¢â¬â PATH Ã¢â¬â GOAL schema into which our everyday experience may be organized, life can be understood as a process with a starting point, an end point and a time span: Ã¢â¬Å"Complex events in general are also understood in terms of a source Ã¢â¬â path Ã¢â¬â goal schema; complex events have initial states (source), a sequence of intermediate stages (path) and a final state (destination)Ã¢â¬ . Hence, death is conceptualized as the final stage of our lifespan by means of the image mapping Death is the End, which provides the basis for understanding and mitigating death and dying (Fernandez, 2006:123). In the examples below, death is viewed as the end of the process of human life: Conceptual metaphor Source domain Target domain End Death 26- 27- 28- Furthermore, expressions containing the adjective (/ ) such as ( ), ( ), ( ) can also belong to this cognitive network in the sense that they help to understand human death in terms of finality. 6- Death is Surrender: The domain of death can be explained in terms of the cognitive domain of Surrender in 7.5% of all the corpus data. Certainly, the notion of surrender in the conceptual metaphors below is basically a reflection of the Islamic view to the taboo of death: this is due to the fact that the Kurdish people are predominately Muslims. The term ISLAM itself is derived from the Arabic root Ã¢â¬ËaslamaÃ¢â¬â¢ which means Ã¢â¬Å"to surrender, resign oneselfÃ¢â¬ . In Islam, the fundamental duty of each Muslim is to submit to Allah and whatever Allah wants of them. Thus, this conceptual mapping views death as surrender to AllahÃ¢â¬â¢s (GodÃ¢â¬â¢s) orders and purpose: 29- 30- 31- Conceptual Metaphor Source domain Target domain Surrender Death 7 Ã¢â¬â Death is a Joyful life: The domain of death is explained in terms the cognitive domain of joyful life in only 3.7% of all the examples collected which marks the least frequent domain in the corpus overall. This cognitive domain is based on the religious belief in an afterlife in which the deceased will joyfully expect the resurrection in Heaven flanked by God and the celestial angels (Frnandez, 2006:119). This cognitive mapping transfers the attributes from the domain of a joyful life to the domain of death, as in: 32- 33- When considered closely, these two examples can best be viewed in the light of the metaphor Death is eternal life proposed by Marin Arise (1996: 44) since they exhibit a presupposition that GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Heaven is where the deceased has surely settled. As Fernandez (2006:119) states, due the fact of joy, life is viewed in negative terms. This conceptualization is particularly reflected in the metaphor ( ). Conceptual Metaphor Source Target domain Joyful life Death 6. Conclusions: 1. This paper contains a collected a corpus of euphemistic expressions of death in Kurdish whose examples have been drawn mainly from the Dictionary of Idioms in Kurdish by Abdulwahab Shekhany (2009:341-5). 2. The corpus items have been thoroughly examined against a set of linguistic devices such as metaphors, metonymies, generic terms, etc. As the result, we have concluded that metaphors are presumed to constitute the majority of the euphemistic expressions of death in Kurdish. This fact can be an indication that this particular device best suits the purpose of euphemism. 3. Having confirmed the metaphorical source of most of the euphemistic expressions, we have drawn seven conceptual mappings from Bultnick (1998), Fernandez (2006) and Allan Burridge (1991) and have applied them to the Kurdish expressions within the well-known framework of Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT). When analyzed, the corpus data indicate that the category death as a loss constitutes the highest rate of examples in Kurdish (30.18%) whereas the category death is a joyful life contains the least examples (only 4%). This fact explicitly demonstrates the non-religious or secular outlook of the Kurdish individual towards death and dying. 7. Bibliography: Allan, Keith Burridge, Kate. (2006). Forbidden words. Taboo and the Censoring of Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Allan, K. and Burridge, K. (1991) Euphemism and Dysphemism: language used as shield and weapon. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Crystal, David. (2003). The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Fernandez, Eliecer, C. (2006). The Language of Death: Euphemism and Conceptual Metaphorization in Victorian Obituaries. Sky Journal of Linguistics Vol.19, pp 101-130. Gladney, George Albert Rittenberg, Terri L. (2005). Euphemistic Text Affects Attitudes, Behaviour. Newspaper Research Journal. 26 (1) 28-42. Goatly, Andrew (1997). The Language of Metaphors. London: Routledge. Gross, John. (1985). Intimations of Mortality. In Enright, D.J. 1985. Fair of Speech. The uses of euphemism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Holder, R.W. (2003). How Not to Say What You Mean: A Dictionary of Euphemisms, Oxford University Press. Hugh, Rawson (1995). A Dictionary of Euphemism Other Doublespeak, second edition. Hughes, Geoffrey. (2000). A History of English Words. Oxford: Blackwell. Katamba, Francis. (1994) English Words. London: Routledge. Lakoff, George Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Lakoff, George (1987). Women, Fire and Dangerous Things. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Leech, Geoffrey. (1981). Semantics. Second Edition. Harmondsorth: Penguin Books. Marin Arrese, Juana. (1996). To die, to sleep. A Contrastive Study of Metaphors of Death and Dying in English and Spanish. Language Sciences Vol.18, 1-2. PP 37-52 Neaman, J. S., Silver, C. G. (1983). Kind words: A thesaurus of euphemisms. New York: Facts on File, Inc. Rawson, H. (1981). A dictionary of euphemisms and other doubletalk. New York: Crown Publishers, Inc. Sekhany, Abdulwahab (2006). Farhangi Idyom la Zmani Kurdi (A Dictionary of Idioms in Kurdish. Mukiryani Establishment for Research and Publication. Erbil. Ullman, Stephen. (1962). Semantics. Oxford: Blackwell. Appendix He carried out GodÃ¢â¬â¢s order 1- He carried out GodÃ¢â¬â¢s order 2- He was thrown at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy 3- He was thrown at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy 4- He was thrown at GodÃ¢â¬â¢s mercy 5- He fell sacrifice to you (the present) 6- God took him back 7- He departed the bright world 8- He fell a sacrifice to you (the present) 9- He reposed (in the cemetery) 10- He was sent off to the unending night of death -11 His pure soul flew off to the vast Heaven 12- He sacrificed his pure soul to Kurdistan 13- His pure soul was called to Heaven 14- He entrusted his pure soul to God 15- His glimpse of life died out 16- The flower of his life faded out 17- He was led into ruin (his life was ruined) 18- He released from earthly sufferings 19- He drank the liquor of death 20- He preferred the boundless Heaven to the cramped Earth 21- He departed the grief Ã¢â¬â stricken world 22- He put up his tent before the throne of God 23- God, the Savior rid him of his wretched fellow humans 24- He jumped into the other world 25- He made GodÃ¢â¬Ës Heaven his permanent nest 26- He slept under the earth 27- He was hit by the arrow of death 28- He carried his stuff to the graveyard 29- He was relieved of life 30- God disposed of him 31- He was released of life 32- The torch of his life died out by death 33- He has settled in Heaven 34- Death took him young 35- He got mixed with soil at the flower of his life 36- Death came to his rescue 37- He became a guest to the graveyard 38- He bid farewell to life 39- His life ended 40- He perished 41- His lifeÃ¢â¬â¢s book was folded up 42- The death wind flew off his life treeÃ¢â¬â¢s leaves 43- His shadow disappeared on earth 44- He fell victim to IsrailÃ¢â¬â¢s looting 45- His sustenance on earth was cut off 46- He rested in the grave 47- He packed his baggage and headed for the grave 48- He settled in GodÃ¢â¬â¢s Heaven with the virtuous 49- He headed for the gardens of Heaven 50- ? He discharged his obligation 51- He made his last voyage 52- He lost his soul 53- Research Papers on Euphemistic Expressions in KurdishThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsCapital PunishmentArguments for Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS)The Fifth HorsemanMind TravelPETSTEL analysis of IndiaBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XHip-Hop is ArtComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Essay
Friday, February 21, 2020
Critical reflection of classroom observations - Essay Example Lesson aims for the students: The main aim of the lesson was to give the students an opportunity to developskills for generating a conversation more so with a stranger. Specific Skills: By the end of the lesson, the students were expected to generate a general idea of conversation starters through the completion of a specific task. The subsidiary aim of the lesson was to shine light upon the learners on they ought to speak and to learn the appropriate vocabulary for conversing with people under different circumstances. Anticipated Problems & Solutions: As is expected in every lesson, this lesson had its anticipated problems. Pronunciation was the first anticipated problem because the students would have found the new vocabulary in the text hard to cope with. Not only was the new vocabulary posing the problem of mispronunciation, it also had the possibility of making students to slow down in their reading. The students were also expected to present something that they generated from t he task that the teacher gave them. It was therefore expected that some of the students would be shy during the presentation. ... To eliminate the anticipation of the students being shy, the teacher had to make the lesson as interactive as possible and make sure that all the students participated in the activities. Assumed Knowledge: The basic assumption of the lesson was that the students were familiar with the concepts of starting a conversation, especially with a stranger. Materials: Delisle, R. (1997). How to use problem-based learning in the classroom. Alexandria, Va, Asociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Ellis, R. (2009). A typology of written corrective feedback types. Gear, A. (2006). Reading power: teaching students to think while they read. Markham, Ont, Pembroke Publishers. Harding da Rosa, J-M. (2012) Ã¢â¬ËManaging your classesÃ¢â¬â¢ in English Teaching Professional, issue 82 ,pp 22-24. Harmer, J. (2007) The Practice of English Language Teaching (4th Edition). Hativa, N. (2001). Teaching for effective learning in higher education.Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers. Hebden, M. & Mason, J. (2003).Classroom organization.English Teaching Professional. Issue 28.Pp 23-5. Jacobs, G. M. and Ball, J. (1996) Ã¢â¬ËAn Investigation of the Structure of Group Activities in ELT CoursebooksÃ¢â¬â¢ in ELT Journal 50/2 99-107. Saginor, N. (2008). Diagnostic classroom observation: Moving beyond best practice. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Senior, R. (2008) 'Developing Rapport' in English Teaching Professional, issue 54. Tudor, I. (1993) Ã¢â¬ËTeacher roles in the learner-centred classroomÃ¢â¬â¢ in ELT Journal (1993) 47(1): 22-3. Widdowson, H. G. (1987) Ã¢â¬Ë The Roles of Teacher and LearnerÃ¢â¬â¢ in ELT Journal, 41/ 2 83-8. Wilson, K. (2008) Ã¢â¬ËFacilitator Talk in EAP Reading ClassesÃ¢â¬â¢ in ELT Journal, 62/4, 366-374. Zepeda, S. J. (2009). The instructional leader's guide to informal